Palm Springs, Hong Kong
Palm Springs, Hong Kong

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Olsson U.,Gothenburg University | Leader P.J.,AEC Ltd. | Carey G.J.,AEC Ltd. | Khan A.A.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2013

We use the mitochondrial cytochrome b from 213 individuals and the three nuclear introns BRM 15, myoglobin 2 and ODC 6-7 from a smaller subsample to evaluate the taxonomy of the Lesser Whitethroat Sylvia curruca (Aves, Passeriformes, Sylviidae) complex, which has long been controversial. We sequenced type material of the taxa althaea, blythi, margelanica and minula, and used topotypical material of caucasica, chuancheica, curruca and telengitica. The nuclear introns fail to resolve the complex, but cytochrome b recovers six major clades, revealing genetically identifiable populations corresponding to previously named taxa, and we propose that the names althaea, blythi, curruca, halimodendri, margelanica and minula, respectively, should be used for these. The margelanica clade is suggested to have a more extensive distribution than previously known, including both the taxon telengitica and a population in eastern Mongolia. The taxon minula is found to have a more restricted range than generally believed, only breeding in China. According to the mitochondrial gene tree, there is a basal dichotomy, with the taxa althaea, blythi, halimodendri and margelanica being part of one clade, well separated from a clade containing curruca and minula. Dating analysis suggests that a basal divergence separating curruca and minula from the other four taxa occurred between 4.2 and 7.2. mya; these two then diverged between 2.3 and 4.4. mya. The splits between the althaea, blythi, halimodendri and margelanica lineages is inferred to have occurred later, approximately between 1.0 and 2.5. mya (all 95% HPD). The nucleotide data suggest significant departure from demographic equilibrium in blythi (clade 1a), halimodendri (clade 2a) and minula, whereas tendencies are weaker for other clades. We propose that the names althaea, blythi, curruca, halimodendri, margelanica and minula should be used for the major clades. However, whether these are treated as subspecies or species is largely a matter of species definition and is not resolved by our data. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Xia C.,Beijing Normal University | Liang W.,Hainan Normal University | Carey G.J.,AEC Ltd | Zhang Y.,Beijing Normal University
Zoological Studies | Year: 2016

Song features during the breeding season are important in identifying species of cuckoos. Whether Oriental Cuckoo Cuculus optatus and Himalayan Cuckoo C. saturatus inhabiting the Palearctic and Oriental realms respectively can be distinguished according to song characteristics is uncertain. In this study, we performed a thorough investigation of the song characteristics of these taxa by collecting and analyzing recordings of song in their distribution areas. We found that songs could be divided into two groups based on the number of notes per syllable, and significant differences in other frequency and temporal features were also found between these two groups. The group with a song comprising two notes per syllable was shown to breed in Russia, northern Xinjiang, northeast China, Taiwan Island and Japan, while the group with a song containing more than two notes per syllable was found to breed in the Himalayas and central China, extending northeast through north China as far as northeast Hebei, and south to southwest China. The distribution of these two groups was broadly related to the published distribution of populations of optatus and saturatus, respectively. Our data supported the separation of optatus and saturatus based on their song features, and also suggested refinements to the distribution of these two taxa, as follows: birds in north China are saturatus, and those in Taiwan Island are optatus. © 2016, Academia Sinica. All right reserved.


Bridge E.S.,University of Oklahoma | Kelly J.F.,University of Oklahoma | Xiao X.,University of Oklahoma | Takekawa J.Y.,U.S. Geological Survey | And 24 more authors.
Ecological Indicators | Year: 2014

Satellite-based tracking of migratory waterfowl is an important tool for understanding the potential role of wild birds in the long-distance transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza. However, employing this technique on a continental scale is prohibitively expensive. This study explores the utility of stable isotope ratios in feathers in examining both the distances traveled by migratory birds and variation in migration behavior. We compared the satellite-derived movement data of 22 ducks from 8 species captured at wintering areas in Bangladesh, Turkey, and Hong Kong with deuterium ratios (δD) in the feathers of these and other individuals captured at the same locations. We derived likely molting locations from the satellite tracking data and generated expected isotope ratios based on an interpolated map of δD in rainwater. Although δD was correlated with the distance between wintering and molting locations, surprisingly, measured δD values were not correlated with either expected values or latitudes of molting sites. However, population-level parameters derived from the satellite-tracking data, such as mean distance between wintering and molting locations and variation in migration distance, were reflected by means and variation of the stable isotope values. Our findings call into question the relevance of the rainfall isotope map for Asia for linking feather isotopes to molting locations, and underscore the need for extensive ground truthing in the form of feather-based isoscapes. Nevertheless, stable isotopes from feathers could inform disease models by characterizing the degree to which regional breeding populations interact at common wintering locations. Feather isotopes also could aid in surveying wintering locations to determine where high-resolution tracking techniques (e.g. satellite tracking) could most effectively be employed. Moreover, intrinsic markers such as stable isotopes offer the only means of inferring movement information from birds that have died as a result of infection. In the absence of feather based-isoscapes, we recommend a combination of isotope analysis and satellite-tracking as the best means of generating aggregate movement data for informing disease models. © 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd.


Leader P.J.,AEC Ltd. | Carey G.J.,AEC Ltd.
Forktail | Year: 2013

Rhopophilus pekinensis is a passerine endemic to north-east Asia occurring primarily in China; two or three subspecies are variously recognised. A review of museum material and fieldwork on the breeding grounds indicates that only two taxa (R. p. pekinensis and R. p. albosuperciliaris) are valid, and using criteria that grade morphological and vocal differences between allopatric taxa (Tobias et al. 2010), both achieve the threshold for species status. The English names Beijing Babbler and Tarim Babbler are proposed reflecting both the type location of each and the recently elucidated taxonomic affinities of Rhopophilus.


Leader P.J.,AEC Ltd. | Carey G.J.,AEC Ltd.
Forktail | Year: 2012

The Blue-and-white Flycatcher Cyanoptila cyanomelana is a summer visitor to north-east Asia. A review of museum material demonstrates that the present treatment of two subspecies (nominate and cumatilis) is untenable as (a) intermedia, although not currently recognised, is considered valid, and (b) the name cumatilis is currently incorrectly ascribed, being restricted in reality to central China (outside of the published range of Blue-and-white Flycatcher). Populations of all three taxa were studied on the breeding grounds in Russia, China and Japan and their songs recorded. Using criteria (Tobias et al. 2010) that grade morphological and vocal differences between allopatric taxa, cumatilis readily achieves the threshold for species status. The English name Zappey's Flycatcher is proposed in honour of the collector of the type specimen. Two subspecies of Blue-and-white Flycatcher are recognised, nominate and intermedia.


Larson K.,AEC Inc.
Society of Plastics Engineers - EUROTEC 2011 Conference Proceedings | Year: 2011

There are many opportunities available to improve the efficiency of your operation, and most equipment suppliers can help you exceed your specific requirements. With rising energy costs and tighter profit margins, everyone should be looking at ways to maximize the efficiency of their reclaim operations. Properly designed process cooling, material handling and size reduction systems are as important to the productivity of the plant as the extrusion technology itself. The analogy that "a chain is as strong as its weakest link" applies to all plastic processes as well. You don't want a million dollar molding machine or extrusion line sitting idle because you saved $5,000 when you bought your chiller or material handling system! You also don't want to spend any more money than necessary to re-process your material, so an energy-efficient system should be in your future plans!.

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