Harwell, United Kingdom
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Atkinson R.W.,St George's, University of London | Carey I.M.,St George's, University of London | Kent A.J.,Aea Environment And Energy | Van Staa T.P.,Datalink | And 2 more authors.
Epidemiology | Year: 2013

Background: Evidence based largely on US cohorts suggests that long-term exposure to fine particulate matter is associated with cardiovascular mortality. There is less evidence for other pollutants and for cardiovascular morbidity. By using a cohort of 836,557 patients age 40 to 89 years registered with 205 English general practices in 2003, we investigated relationships between ambient outdoor air pollution and incident myocardial infarction, stroke, arrhythmia, and heart failure over a 5-year period. Methods: Events were identified from primary care records, hospital admissions, and death certificates. Annual average concentrations in 2002 for particulate matter with a median aerodynamic diameter <10 (PM10) and <2.5 microns, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone, and sulfur dioxide at a 1 × 1 km resolution were derived from emission-based models and linked to residential postcode. Analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for relevant confounders, including social and economic deprivation and smoking. Results: While evidence was weak for relationships with myocardial infarction, stroke, or arrhythmia, we found consistent associations between pollutant concentrations and incident cases of heart failure. An interquartile range change in PM10 and in NO2 (3.0 and 10.7 μg/m, respectively) both produced a hazard ratio of 1.06 (95% confidence interval = 1.01-1.11) after adjustment for confounders. There was some evidence that these effects were greater in more affluent areas. Conclusions: This study of an English national cohort found evidence linking long-term exposure to particulate matter and NO2 with the development of heart failure. We did not, however, replicate associations for other cardiovascular outcomes that have been reported elsewhere. © 2012 by Lippincott William & Wilkins.

Carey I.M.,St George's, University of London | Atkinson R.W.,St George's, University of London | Kent A.J.,Aea Environment And Energy | Van Staa T.,Datalink | And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2013

Rationale: Cohort evidence linking long-term exposure to outdoor particulate air pollution and mortality has come largely from the United States. There is relatively little evidence from nationally representative cohorts in other countries. Objectives: To investigate the relationship between long-term exposure to a range of pollutants and causes of death in a national English cohort. Methods: A total of 835,607 patients aged 40-89 years registered with 205 general practices were followed from 2003-2007. Annual average concentrations in 2002 for particulate matter with a median aerodynamic diameter less than 10 (PM10) and less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone, and sulfur dioxide (SO2) at 1 km2 resolution, estimated from emission-based models, were linked to residential postcode. Deaths (n = 83,103) were ascertained from linkage to death certificates, and hazard ratios (HRs) for all- and cause-specific mortality for pollutants were estimated for interquartile pollutant changes from Cox models adjusting for age, sex, smoking, body mass index, and area-level socioeconomic status markers. Measurements and Main Results: Residential concentrations of all pollutants except ozone were positively associated with all-cause mortality (HR, 1.02, 1.03, and 1.04 for PM2.5, NO 2, and SO2, respectively). Associations for PM 2.5, NO2, and SO2 were larger for respiratory deaths (HR, 1.09 each) and lung cancer (HR, 1.02, 1.06, and 1.05) but nearer unity for cardiovascular deaths (1.00, 1.00, and 1.04). Conclusions: These results strengthen the evidence linking long-term ambient air pollution exposure to increased all-cause mortality. However, the stronger associations with respiratory mortality are not consistent with most US studies in which associations with cardiovascular causes of death tend to predominate. Copyright © 2013 by the American Thoracic Society.

Mattsson L.T.,Aea Environment And Energy | Read A.D.,Aea Environment And Energy | Phillips P.S.,University of Northampton
Resources, Conservation and Recycling | Year: 2010

In England, the Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) allocated £5 million over three years from 2005 to 2008 to support the establishment of a wide range of innovative Resource Efficiency Clubs (RECs). The funds were channelled through the Envirowise programme which acted as the administrator for the REC programme. Receiving funds committed the club organiser to agree to undertake a minimum level of activity including the collection of resource data from club members, identification of potential savings made in the club and support to assist club members realise the savings. During the funding period (2005-2008) the programme funded 70 RECs with 45 remaining active at the end of the three years (2008). Some 1330 businesses were active in the 70 RECs with 1014 providing data including potential and actual savings. In excess of £50 million of potential savings were identified and by the end of 2008 some £25 million were achieved. The total savings to total grant ratio for all RECs were, by 2008, some 5.8; this was in excess of the original ratio set by Defra. The programme made clear to key decision makers that well designed RECs are a key policy instrument as they demonstrate to given localities and clusters of companies the environmental and financial benefits of resource efficiency. The research showed that the future for RECs in England is uncertain and strategists should consider innovative ways to fund their continued contribution to national, regional and local practice. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Smith M.S.,CSIRO | Horrocks L.,Aea Environment And Energy | Harvey A.,Aea Environment And Energy | Hamilton C.,Center for Applied Philosophy and Public Ethics
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences | Year: 2011

With weakening prospects of prompt mitigation, it is increasingly likely that the world will experience 4° C and more of global warming. In such a world, adaptation decisions that have long lead times or that have implications playing out over many decades become more uncertain and complex. Adapting to global warming of 4° C cannot be seen as a mere extrapolation of adaptation to 2° C; it will be a more substantial, continuous and transformative process. However, a variety of psychological, social and institutional barriers to adaptation are exacerbated by uncertainty and long timeframes, with the danger of immobilizing decision-makers. In this paper, we show how complexity and uncertainty can be reduced by a systematic approach to categorizing the interactions between decision lifetime, the type of uncertainty in the relevant drivers of change and the nature of adaptation response options. We synthesize a number of issues previously raised in the literature to link the categories of interactions to a variety of risk-management strategies and tactics. Such application could help to break down some barriers to adaptation and both simplify and better target adaptation decision-making. The approach needs to be tested and adopted rapidly. © 2011 The Royal Society.

Velthof G.L.,Wageningen University | Lesschen J.P.,Wageningen University | Webb J.,Aea Environment And Energy | Pietrzak S.,Institute of Technology and Life science ITP | And 4 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2014

A series of environmental policies have been implemented in the European Union (EU) to decrease nitrogen (N) emissions from agriculture. The Nitrates Directive (ND) is one of the main policies; it aims to reduce nitrate leaching from agriculture through a number of measures.A study was carried out to quantify the effects of the ND in the EU-27 on the leaching and runoff of nitrate (NO3 -) to groundwater and surface waters, and on the emissions of ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and dinitrogen (N2) to the atmosphere. We formulated a scenario with and a scenario without implementation of the ND. The model MITERRA-Europe was used to calculate N emissions on a regional level in the EU-27 for the period 2000-2008. The calculated total N loss from agriculture in the EU-27 was 13Mton N in 2008, with 53% as N2, 22% as NO3, 21% as NH3, 3% as N2O, and 1% as NOx. The N emissions and leaching in the EU-27 slightly decreased in the period 2000-2008. Total emissions in the EU in 2008 were smaller with implementation of the ND than without the ND, by 3% for NH3, 6% for N2O, 9% for NOx, and 16% for N leaching and runoff in 2008. However, regional differences were large. The lower emissions with ND were mainly due to the lower N inputs by fertilizers and manures. In conclusion, implementation of the ND decreased both N leaching losses to ground and surface waters, and gaseous emissions to the atmosphere. It is expected that the ND will result in a further decrease in N emissions in EU-27 in the near future, because the implementation of the measures for the ND is expected to become more strict. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Wagland S.T.,Cranfield University | Godley A.R.,Aea Environment And Energy | Tyrrel S.F.,Cranfield University
Waste Management | Year: 2011

This paper presents a study to evaluate the recently developed enzymatic hydrolysis test (EHT) through its repeated application to a waste treatment process. A single waste treatment facility, involving a biodrying process, has been monitored using three different methods to assess the biodegradable content of the organic waste fractions. These test methods were the anaerobic BMc, aerobic DR4 and the EHT, which is a method based on the enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulosic content of waste materials. The input municipal solid waste (MSW) and the output solid recovered fuel (SRF) and organic fines streams were sampled over a period of nine months from a single mechanical biological treatment (MBT) facility. The EHT was applied to each stream following grinding to <10 mm and <2 mm, in order to investigate the effect of particle size on the release of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from enzyme hydrolysis. The output organic fines were found to more biodegradable than the MSW input and SRF output samples in each of the test methods, significantly (p<. 0.05) for the EHT and DR4 methods, on the basis of DOC released and oxygen consumed, respectively. The variation between sample replicates for the EHT was higher where sample sizes of <2 mm were analysed compared to sizes of <10 mm, and the DOC release at each phase of the EHT was observed to be higher when using particle sizes of <2 mm. Despite this, additional sample grinding from the <10 mm to a smaller particle size of <2 mm is not sufficiently beneficial to the analysis of organic waste fractions in the EHT method. Finally, it was concluded that as similar trends were observed for each test method, this trial confirms that EHT has the potential to be deployed as a practical operational biodegradability monitoring tool. © 2011.

Phillimore A.B.,University of Edinburgh | Phillimore A.B.,Imperial College London | Stalhandske S.,Imperial College London | Stalhandske S.,University of Stockholm | And 2 more authors.
American Naturalist | Year: 2012

Phenology affects the abiotic and biotic conditions that an organism encounters and, consequently, its fitness. For populations of high-latitude species, spring phenology often occurs earlier in warmer years and regions. Here we apply a novel approach, a comparison of slope of phenology on temperature over space versus over time, to identify the relative roles of plasticity and local adaptation in generating spatial phenological variation in three interacting species, a butterfly, Anthocharis cardamines, and its two host plants, Cardamine pratensis and Alliaria petiolata. All three species overlap in the time window over which mean temperatures best predict variation in phenology, and we find little evidence that a day length requirement causes the sensitive time window to be delayed as latitude increases. The focal species all show pronounced temperaturemediated phenological plasticity of similar magnitude. While we find no evidence for local adaptation in the flowering times of the plants, geographic variation in the phenology of the butterfly is consistent with countergradient local adaptation. The butterfly's phenology appears to be better predicted by temperature than it is by the flowering times of either host plant, and we find no evidence that coevolution has generated geographic variation in adaptive phenological plasticity. © 2012 by The University of Chicago.

Webb J.,Aea Environment And Energy | Pain B.,Creedy Associates | Bittman S.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Morgan J.,Creedy Associates
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2010

Based on simple averages of the reported abatement efficiencies of NH3 emissions, abatement is greater from the use of trailing shoe (TS) (65%) and open-slot injection (OSI) (70-80%) machines than from the trailing hose (TH) (35%). There is considerable variation in the efficiencies reported, especially for trailing hose (0-75%) but also open-slot injection (23-99%). Variation in emissions following the use of the trailing shoe appeared to be somewhat less (38-74%), although this may be due to there being fewer studies reported of the trailing shoe. When slurries or solid manures are applied to arable land immediate incorporation by plough is the most effective abatement technique reducing emissions by at least 90%. Even short (4-6 h) delays in incorporating manures after application will greatly reduce the efficacy of rapid incorporation as a means of NH3 abatement. These reduced-NH3 emission application techniques will also increase crop uptake of manure-N, increasing the value of manures and reducing the net cost of reduced-NH3 application techniques. While there are circumstances under which reduced-NH3 application techniques may increase emissions of N2O, such increases are not inevitable and concern over such emission trade offs should not be allowed to compromise advice on reducing emissions of NH3. The rapid incorporation of solid manures may reduce emissions of NH3 while not increasing, or even reducing, those of N2O. Slurry needs to be injected to depths which increase the diffusion path to the soil surface sufficiently to lead to the majority of denitrified N being emitted as di-nitrogen in order to avoid increasing emissions of N2O. Crown Copyright © 2010.

Gibson N.,Aea Environment And Energy | Stewart R.,Aea Environment And Energy | Rankin E.,Aea Environment And Energy
Journal of Environmental Monitoring | Year: 2012

A study has been carried out to assess the contribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) from asphalt plant operation, utilising Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) as a marker for PAHs, to the background air concentration around asphalt plants in the UK. The purpose behind this assessment was to determine whether the use of published BaP emission factors based on the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodology is appropriate in the context of the UK, especially as the EPA methodology does not give BaP emission factors for all activities. The study also aimed to improve the overall understanding of BaP emissions from asphalt plants in the UK, and determine whether site location and operation is likely to influence the contribution of PAHs to ambient air quality. In order to establish whether the use of US EPA emissions factors is appropriate, the study has compared the BaP emissions measured and calculated emissions rates from two UK sites with those estimated using US EPA emission factors. A dispersion modelling exercise was carried out to show the BaP contribution to ambient air around each site. This study showed that, as the US EPA methodology does not provide factors for all emission sources on asphalt plants, their use may give rise to over- or under-estimations, particularly where sources of BaP are temperature dependent. However, the contribution of both the estimated and measured BaP concentrations to environmental concentration were low, averaging about 0.05 ng m -3 at the boundary of the sites, which is well below the UK BaP assessment threshold of 0.25 ng m -3. Therefore, BaP concentrations, and hence PAH concentrations, from similar asphalt plant operations are unlikely to contribute negatively to ambient air quality. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Newton D.,Aea Environment And Energy | Talbot R.J.,Aea Environment And Energy
Human and Experimental Toxicology | Year: 2012

Data previously reported on the whole-body retention of aluminium-26 (26Al) in a male volunteer are extended to 8 years after intravenous administration as citrate, when only ∼2% of the injected tracer remained. The extended data, combined with a report elsewhere of the late urinary and faecal excretion of 26Al by this subject, reinforce indications that transdermal losses contribute to the clearance of systemic aluminium and mitigate its long-term accumulation from chronic exposure. © The Author(s) 2012.

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