Cape J.N.,UK Center for Ecology and Hydrology |
Coyle M.,UK Center for Ecology and Hydrology |
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2012
Black carbon (BC) in the atmosphere contributes to the human health effects of particulate matter and contributes to radiative forcing of climate. The lifetime of BC, particularly the smaller particle sizes (PM 2.5) which can be transported over long distances, is therefore an important factor in determining the range of such effects, and the spatial footprint of emission controls. Theory and models suggest that the typical lifetime of BC is around one week.The frequency distributions of measurements of a range of hydrocarbons at a remote rural site in southern Scotland (Auchencorth Moss) between 2007 and 2010 have been used to quantify the relationship between atmospheric lifetime and the geometric standard deviation of observed concentration. The analysis relies on an assumed common major emission source for hydrocarbons and BC, namely diesel-engined vehicles. The logarithm of the standard deviation of the log-transformed concentration data is linearly related to hydrocarbon lifetime, and the same statistic for BC can be used to assess the lifetime of BC relative to the hydrocarbons. Annual average data show BC lifetimes in the range 4-12 days, for an assumed OH concentration of 7 × 10 5 cm -3. At this site there is little difference in BC lifetime between winter and summer, despite a 3-fold difference in relative hydrocarbon lifetimes. This observation confirms the role of wet deposition as an important removal process for BC, as there is no difference in precipitation between winter and summer at this site. BC lifetime was significantly greater in 2010, which had 23% less rainfall than the preceding 3 years. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Sustainable Business | Year: 2010
There is a growing interest in adapting to the changing climate across many UK business sectors. Simple steps can be taken to prepare for climate risks and for some companies greater resilience is within easy reach. Companies responding to the Carbon Disclosure Project have answered questions about climate risk. Local authorities report against an indicator of preparedness for climate change. The proper response depends on the organization's risk appetite, as well as on practical concerns such as resources and cost. Climate change is dynamic, and both information on climate risk, and adaptation experience, are growing. Managing climate risks needs to be a continuous process based on regular review and assessment. Ideally climate risk should be included in existing mechanisms for strategic planning and monitoring business risks. Climate change is a long-term strategic issue that is likely to become more important as early-movers seize the new opportunities, or the slow- to-respond disappear.
Proceedings of Institution of Civil Engineers: Waste and Resource Management | Year: 2011
As one of the Defra-funded advanced thermal treatment demonstration technologies, the gasification/oxidation plant on the Isle of Wight started operation in December 2008. As a requirement of the demonstrator project the plant was subjected to an independent assessment of its performance. This paper is based on the report of that assessment, undertaken by AEA Technology and provides an overview of the early operation of the plant in respect of its performance, availability, reliability and maintainability. The period of monitoring spanned the early operation of the plant. The new gasification technology has been retrofitted into a former waste incinerator. Much of the existing energy recovery and pollution abatement equipment downstream of the combustion chamber has been retained, which has resulted in lower than optimal efficiency and availability. During the monitoring period a number of significant unplanned and protracted outages occurred, largely, but not exclusively related to the legacy pollution abatement and energy recovery equipment.
Abu-Shady M.,Menoufia University |
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2010
A logarithmic mesonic potential is proposed for determining nucleon properties that have been recently calculated in the mean-field approximation. The field equations have been solved in the coherent-pair approximation in which the variational method is used. The obtained nucleon properties have been compared with previous calculations and other models. The results indicate that the use of the logarithmic mesonic potential in the coherent-pair approximation provides good agreement with data for the axial-vector coupling constant gA(0), pion-nucleon coupling constant gπNN(0), and sigma commutator σ(πN). © 2010 The American Physical Society.
Cristalli C.,AEA |
Foehr M.,Siemens AG |
Jager T.,Siemens AG |
Leitao P.,Polytechnic Institute of Braganca |
And 4 more authors.
IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics | Year: 2013
The paper introduces a new approach on design of distributed manufacturing control systems. It will be shown how multi-agent principles, self-learning, self-adaptation and a new engineering method for distributed production systems can be used to enhance integration of production control process quality control. It will be highlighted how multi-agent systems may be implemented to enforce interaction of manufacturing execution system and distributed control system, enhancing the exploitation of all available information at the quality control and process control levels. Additional focus is set on production process modeling, quality control algorithms and an engineering methodology integrating all these aspects within. The final results are validated in the field of white ware using a washing machine production line. © 2013 IEEE.