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Colareta Ugarte U.,Advocate Lutheran General Hospital Advocate Childrens Hospital | Prazad P.,Advocate Lutheran General Hospital Advocate Childrens Hospital | Prazad P.,Advocate Medical Group | Puppala B.L.,Advocate Lutheran General Hospital Advocate Childrens Hospital | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Perinatology | Year: 2014

Objective:To determine emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from plastic medical equipment within an incubator.Study Design:Air samples from incubators before and after adding medical equipment were analyzed using EPA TO-15 methodology. Headspace analysis was used to identify VOC emissions from each medical equipment item. Air changes per hour (ACH) of each incubator were determined and used to calculate the emission rate of identified VOCs.Results:Cyclohexanone was identified in all incubator air samples. At 28 °C, the mean concentration before and after adding medical equipment items was 2.1±0.6 and 57.2±14.9 μg m -3,respectively (P<0.01). Concentrations increased to a mean of 83.8±23.8 μg m - 3 (P<0.01) at 37 o C and 93.0±45.1 μg m - 3 (P=0.39) after adding 50% humidity. Intravenous tubing contributed 89% of cyclohexanone emissions. ACH were determined with access doors closed and open with means of 11.5±1.7 and 44.1±6.7h -1, respectively. Cyclohexanone emission rate increased from a mean of 102.2 μg h -1 at 28 o C to 148.8 μg h -1 (P<0.01) at 37 o C.Conclusion:Cyclohexanone was quantified in all incubator air samples containing plastic medical equipment. The concentration of cyclohexanone within the incubator was inversely related to ACH in the closed mode. The cyclohexanone concentration as well as the emission rate increased with higher temperature. © 2014 Nature America, Inc.


PubMed | Midwestern University and Advocate Lutheran General Hospital Advocate Childrens Hospital
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of neonatal-perinatal medicine | Year: 2016

Renal failure is common in the NICU; Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) occurs in 8-24% of admissions. Although AKI is preventable with early diagnosis, no reliable AKI biomarkers exist. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) has been implicated in renal pathogenesis, and elevated urinary ET-1 (uET-1) levels may correlate with progression of renal dysfunction. The study objectives were to determine whether uET-1 levels correlate with renal function parameters and/or fetal growth restriction, and if uET-1 is a potential neonatal AKI biomarker.Sixty-three neonates were enrolled and divided into gestational age (GA) groups by weeks: 1) (24-30 6/7; n=24); 2) (31-36 6/7; n=26); and 3) (37-42; n=13). Additional preterm subgroups for fetal growth restriction analysis included: 1) Appropriate for GA (AGA; n=40), and 2) Small for GA (SGA; n=10). ET-1 levels, measured using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, were collected at birth (cord blood) and 24h ( 4) of life (blood/urine).No correlation was found between uET-1 and blood plasma levels at birth (r=0.15; p>0.05) or 24h (r=0.17; p>0.05). uET-1 negatively correlated with GA (r=-0.44; p<0.001) and GFR (r=-0.34; p<0.01). uET-1 levels did not correlate with creatinine (r=0.13; p>0.05), BUN (r=0.19; p>0.05), BUN/Cr ratio (r=0.15; p>0.05), or urinary output (r=0.12; p>0.05). In fetal growth restriction subgroup analyses: uET-1 levels negatively correlated with GFR in the PT-AGA subgroup (r=-0.38; p=0.017), but not with PT-SGA (r=0.01; p>0.05).Plasma and uET-1 levels did not correlate; therefore, renal ET-1 excretion may reflect renal ET-1 production. uET-1 levels correlated negatively with GA and GFR. uET-1 may be a marker of impaired neonatal circulatory regulation and consequent renal injury.


PubMed | Midwestern University, Advocate Lutheran General Hospital Advocate Childrens Hospital and Statistics Analysis Corporation
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of perinatology : official journal of the California Perinatal Association | Year: 2014

To determine emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from plastic medical equipment within an incubator.Air samples from incubators before and after adding medical equipment were analyzed using EPA TO-15 methodology. Headspace analysis was used to identify VOC emissions from each medical equipment item. Air changes per hour (ACH) of each incubator were determined and used to calculate the emission rate of identified VOCs.Cyclohexanone was identified in all incubator air samples. At 28C, the mean concentration before and after adding medical equipment items was 2.1 0.6 and 57.2 14.9 g m(-3),respectively (P<0.01). Concentrations increased to a mean of 83.8 23.8 g m(-)(3) (P<0.01) at 37(o)C and 93.0 45.1 g m(-)(3) (P=0.39) after adding 50% humidity. Intravenous tubing contributed 89% of cyclohexanone emissions. ACH were determined with access doors closed and open with means of 11.5 1.7 and 44.1 6.7 h(-1), respectively. Cyclohexanone emission rate increased from a mean of 102.2 g h(-1) at 28(C to 148.8 g h(-1) (P<0.01) at 37C.Cyclohexanone was quantified in all incubator air samples containing plastic medical equipment. The concentration of cyclohexanone within the incubator was inversely related to ACH in the closed mode. The cyclohexanone concentration as well as the emission rate increased with higher temperature.

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