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Mueller J.,Adventus Group
Pollution Engineering | Year: 2011

An impacted aquifer when amended with carbon, or heated then a small portion of the fermentable organic matter may be converted to a variety of ketones, including acetone or methyl ethyl ketone. The processes might temporarily raise groundwater concentrations for such compounds above site-specific cleanup levels and also may trigger regulatory concerns, unless one completely understands the methods, fate and transport of ketone production. The occasional, transient production of acetone and/or MEK generally occurs when alkanes and high-organic carbon levels, which exist in sub-oxic, methanogenic environments, are present. It is assumed that MEK and acetone production transpires before the system actually becomes fully anaerobic, or after a carbon source is injected. The formation of such fermentation products is widely recognized as a potential limitation of substrate addition for enhanced bioremediation. Source


Mueller J.,Adventus Group | Przepiora A.,Adventus Group | Molin J.,Adventus Group | Valkenburg J.,Adventus Group
Pollution Engineering | Year: 2010

Several factors influences in-situ injection such as transient observation of compounds related to the injection, unexpected waste products of CVOC degradation, and daylighting/short-circuiting of amendments during injection need to be addressed. Catabolites generated from sequential reductive dehalogenation reactions are usually anticipated and monitored but there are some other metabolites generated from less common pathways such as carbon disulfide may be formed during reductive dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride especially under sulfate reducing conditions. In situ treatment approach altering a site's geochemistry, may result in the risk of mobilizing metals sorbed to the soil matrix such as conventional reductive anaerobic dechlorination reactions may result in a release of metals bound within iron oxides, manganese oxides or other clay minerals in the aquifer material. EHC® maintains a near-neutral pH, as the acidity of carbon substrate degradation is balanced by the alkalinity resulting from zero-valent iron (ZVI) corrosion. Source

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