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Camden, NJ, United States

Hyatt M.W.,Adventure Aquarium | Rosas-Rosas A.G.,University of Connecticut | Wolf J.C.,Experimental Pathology Laboratories Inc. | Frasca S.,University of Connecticut
Journal of Aquatic Animal Health

An aquarium-maintained female Red Irish Lord Hemilepidotus hemilepidotus presented with severe coelomic distension. The fish was anesthetized for ultrasonographic examination, which highlighted multiple cyst-like lesions in the liver and a distended ovary that was filled with follicles and an inspissated egg mass. Multiple exploratory celiotomies were performed for eggmass removal, liver biopsy, ovariosalpingectomy, and body wall rupture repair. Fourteen weeks after original presentation, and subsequent to 2 weeks of anorexia, the fish died. At necropsy, the liver was severely enlarged and distorted by multiple, coalescing, cyst-like spaces with no grossly normal liver parenchyma. The spleen also contained a raised cyst-like structure. Microscopically, the liver had welldemarcated foci of hepatocyte loss with retained meshworks of interconnected, perisinusoidal stellate cells. The fluid-filled spaces surrounded by stellate cells were not lined by epithelium or endothelium. The spleen had similar fluid-filled spaces formed of stellate cells. The cyst-like lesions in the liver were consistent with spongiosis hepatis; however, the concurrent development of a morphologically comparable lesion in the spleen is not typical of spongiosis hepatis cases. This case may represent the first report of spontaneously occurring spongiosis hepatis in a fish maintained in a public aquarium, as well as the first report in a fish of spongiosis hepatis-like lesions in an organ other than the liver. © American Fisheries Society 2015. Source

Hyatt M.W.,Adventure Aquarium | Georoff T.A.,Philadelphia Zoo | Nollens H.H.,SeaWorld San Diego | Wells R.L.,Gulfarium Marine Adventure Park | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine

Aspergillosis is a common respiratory fungal disease in penguins managed under human care. Triazole antifungal drugs, including itraconazole, are most commonly used for treatment; however, itraconazole treatment failures from drug resistance are becoming more common, requiring newer treatment options. Voriconazole, a newer triazole, is being used more often. Until recently, no voriconazole pharmacokinetic studies had been performed in penguins, leading to empiric dosing based on other avian studies. This has led to increased anecdotal reporting of apparent voriconazole toxicity in penguins. This report describes 18 probable and 6 suspected cases of voriconazole toxicity in six penguin species from nine institutions: 12 African penguins (Spheniscus demersus), 5 Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti), 3 Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus), 2 gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua papua), 1 macaroni penguin (Eudyptes chrysolophus), and 1 emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri). Observed clinical signs of toxicity included anorexia, lethargy, weakness, ataxia, paresis, apparent vision changes, seizure-like activity, and generalized seizures. Similar signs of toxicity have also been reported in humans, in whom voriconazole therapeutic plasma concentration for Aspergillus spp. infections is 2-6 μg/ml. Plasma voriconazole concentrations were measured in 18 samples from penguins showing clinical signs suggestive of voriconazole toxicity. The concentrations ranged from 8.12 to 64.17 μg/ml, with penguins having plasma concentrations above 30 μg/ml exhibiting moderate to severe neurologic signs, including ataxia, paresis, and seizures. These concentrations were well above those known to result in central nervous system toxicity, including encephalopathy, in humans. This case series highlights the importance of species-specific dosing of voriconazole in penguins and plasma therapeutic drug monitoring. Further investigation, including pharmacokinetic studies, is warranted. The authors recommend caution in determining voriconazole dosages for use in penguin species. © Copyright 2015 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians. Source

Cray C.,University of Miami | Stremme D.W.,Adventure Aquarium | Arheart K.L.,University of Miami
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine

In a clinical setting, it is important to differentiate abnormal values that may be a normal change resulting from feeding and those that may be disease related. Such postprandial changes have been identified in mammalian and avian species. In the current study, pre- and postvalues for several routine biochemical analytes from penguins (Spheniscus demersus) were examined. Significant increases were found in uric acid, triglycerides, and bile acids (P < 0.001). Uric acid levels increased more than threefold. These data indicate that postprandial changes should be considered when interpreting abnormal biochemistry values in penguins. © 2010 American Association of Zoo Veterinarians. Source

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