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Godoy B.A.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Gomes-Gouvea M.S.,University of Sao Paulo | Zagonel-Oliveira M.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Zagonel-Oliveira M.,VIZLab Advanced Visualization Laboratory | And 5 more authors.
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2016

Native American populations present the highest prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection in the Americas, which may be associated to severe disease outcomes. Ten HBV genotypes (A-J) have been described, displaying a remarkable geographic structure, which most likely reflects historic patterns of human migrations. In this study, we characterize the HBV strains circulating in a historical sample of Native South Americans to characterize the historical viral dynamics in this population. The sample consisted of 1070 individuals belonging to 38 populations collected between 1965 and 1997. Presence of HBV DNA was checked by quantitative real-time PCR, and determination of HBV genotypes and subgenotypes was performed through sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of a fragment including part of HBsAg and Pol coding regions (S/Pol). A Bayesian Skyline Plot analysis was performed to compare the viral population dynamics of HBV/A1 strains found in Native Americans and in the general Brazilian population. A total of 109 individuals were positive for HBV DNA (~"10%), and 70 samples were successfully sequenced and genotyped. Subgenotype A1 (HBV/A1), related to African populations and the African slave trade, was the most prevalent (66-94%). The Skyline Plot analysis showed a marked population expansion of HBV/A1 in Native Americans occurring more recently (1945-1965) than in the general Brazilian population. Our results suggest that historic processes that contributed to formation of HBV/A1 circulating in Native American are related with more recent migratory waves towards the Amazon basin, which generated a different viral dynamics in this region. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

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