Sato T.,Kansai University |
Araki S.,Kansai University |
Morimoto M.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology |
Tanaka R.,Advanced Technology and Research Institute |
Yamamoto H.,Kansai University
Energy and Fuels | Year: 2014
The Hansen solubility parameters (HSPs) of asphaltenes extracted from oil sand bitumen samples produced at Athabasca in Canada and also from a vacuum residue fraction (VR) produced in the Middle East were determined by the Hansen solubility sphere method. For calculation of HSPs, the solubilities of asphaltenes were determined using a dynamic light scattering (DLS) method by dissolving or dispersing the asphaltenes in various solvents and measuring the particle size distributions thereof. The particle diameters of asphaltenes in good solvents were lower than its detection limit (<1 nm). It was demonstrated in the present study that asphaltenes differing in elemental composition had different HSP values corresponding to dispersion, dipole interaction, and hydrogen-bonding forces (δd, δp, and δh, respectively). Experimental results suggested that the differences in HSP values of the asphaltenes were influenced by the H/C ratio, oxygen content, and average asphaltene molecular weight. © 2014 American Chemical Society.
Hirose T.,Advanced Technology and Research Institute |
Nakamura O.,Advanced Technology and Research Institute |
Okabe N.,Royal Dutch Shell |
Tsukasaki Y.,Toyota Motor Corporation |
And 10 more authors.
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2011
The study of 10% ethanol blended gasoline (E10 gasoline) utilization has been conducted in the Japan Auto-Oil Program (JATOP). In order to clarify the impact of E10 gasoline on vehicle performances, exhaust emissions, evaporative emissions, driveability and material compatibility have been investigated by using domestic gasoline vehicles including mini motor vehicles which are particular to Japan. The test results reveal that E10 gasoline has no impact on exhaust emissions, engine startup time and acceleration period under the hot start condition, but a slight deterioration is observed in some test cases under the cold start condition using E10 gasolines with 50% distillation temperature (T50) level set to the upper limit of Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS) K 2202. Regarding evaporative emissions, the tested vehicles shows no remarkable increase in the hot soak loss (HSL), diurnal breathing loss (DBL) and running loss (RL) testing with E10 gasolines. © Copyright 2011 Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan, Inc. and SAE International.