Pang W.,Advanced Aesthetics Surgery Center |
Liu Y.-C.,China Medical University at Taichung |
Maboudou E.,University of Central Florida |
Chen T.X.,China Medical University at Taichung |
And 3 more authors.
Pain Medicine (United States) | Year: 2013
Objective: Multimodal analgesia has been effectively used in postoperative pain control. Tramadol can be considered "multimodal" because it has two main mechanisms of action, an opioid agonist and a reuptake inhibitor of norepinephrine and serotonin. Tramadol is not as commonly used as morphine due to the increased incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). As metoclopramide is an antiemetic and an analgesic, it was hypothesized that when added to reduce PONV, metoclopromide may enhance the multimodal feature of tramadol by the analgesic property of metoclopramide. Therefore, the effectiveness of postoperative patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) with morphine was compared against PCA with combination of tramadol and metoclopramide. Design: A prospective, randomized, double blind clinical trial. Setting: Academic pain service of a university hospital. Subjects: Sixty patients undergoing elective total knee arthroplasty with general anesthesia. Methods: Sixty patients were randomly divided into Group M and Group T. In a double-blinded fashion, Group M received intraoperative 0.2mg/kg morphine and postoperative PCA with 1mg morphine per bolus, whereas Group T received intraoperative tramadol 2.5mg/kg and postoperative PCA with 20mg tramadol plus 1mg metoclopramide per bolus. Lockout interval was 5 minutes in both groups. Pain scale, satisfaction rate, analgesic consumption, PCA demand, and side effects were recorded by a blind investigator. Results: These two groups displayed no statistically significant difference between the items and variables evaluated. Conclusions: This combination provides analgesia equivalent to that of morphine and can be used as an alternative to morphine PCA. © 2013 American Academy of Pain Medicine.