Veronesi E.,The Pirbright Institute |
Antony F.,The Pirbright Institute |
Gubbins S.,The Pirbright Institute |
Golding N.,The Pirbright Institute |
And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013
Background:Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are the biological vectors of globally significant arboviruses of livestock including bluetongue virus (BTV), African horse sickness virus (AHSV) and the recently emerging Schmallenberg virus (SBV). From 2006-2009 outbreaks of BTV in northern Europe inflicted major disruption and economic losses to farmers and several attempts were made to implicate Palaearctic Culicoides species as vectors. Results from these studies were difficult to interpret as they used semi-quantitative RT-PCR (sqPCR) assays as the major diagnostic tool, a technique that had not been validated for use in this role. In this study we validate the use of these assays by carrying out time-series detection of BTV RNA in two colony species of Culicoides and compare the results with the more traditional isolation of infectious BTV on cell culture.Methodology/Principal Findings:A BTV serotype 1 strain mixed with horse blood was fed to several hundred individuals of Culicoides sonorensis (Wirth & Jones) and C. nubeculosus (Mg.) using a membrane-based assay and replete individuals were then incubated at 25°C. At daily intervals 25 Culicoides of each species were removed from incubation, homogenised and BTV quantified in each individual using sqPCR (Cq values) and virus isolation on a KC-C. sonorensis embryonic cell line, followed by antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In addition, comparisons were also drawn between the results obtained with whole C. sonorensis and with individually dissected individuals to determine the level of BTV dissemination.Conclusions/Significance:Cq values generated from time-series infection experiments in both C. sonorensis and C. nubeculosus confirmed previous studies that relied upon the isolation and detection of infectious BTV. Implications on the testing of field-collected Culicoides as potential virus vectors by PCR assays and the use of such assays as front-line tools for use in diagnostic laboratories in this role are discussed. © 2013 Veronesi et al.
Purse B.V.,UK Center for Ecology and Hydrology |
Falconer D.,Advanced Pest Solutions Ltd. |
Sullivan M.J.,Advanced Pest Solutions Ltd. |
Carpenter S.,Institute for Animal Health |
And 6 more authors.
Medical and Veterinary Entomology | Year: 2012
Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) vector a wide variety of internationally important arboviral pathogens of livestock and represent a widespread biting nuisance. This study investigated the influence of landscape, host and remotely-sensed climate factors on local abundance of livestock-associated species in Scotland, within a hierarchical generalized linear model framework. The Culicoides obsoletus group and the Culicoides pulicaris group accounted for 56% and 41%, respectively, of adult females trapped. Culicoides impunctatus Goetghebuer and C. pulicaris s.s. Linnaeus were the most abundant and widespread species in the C. pulicaris group (accounting for 29% and 10%, respectively, of females trapped). Abundance models performed well for C. impunctatus, Culicoides deltus Edwards and Culicoides punctatus Meigen (adjusted R 2: 0.59-0.70), but not for C. pulicaris s.s. (adjusted R 2: 0.36) and the C. obsoletus group (adjusted R 2: 0.08). Local-scale abundance patterns were best explained by models combining host, landscape and climate factors. The abundance of C. impunctatus was negatively associated with cattle density, but positively associated with pasture cover, consistent with this species' preference in the larval stage for lightly grazed, wet rush pasture. Predicted abundances of this species varied widely among farms even over short distances (less than a few km). Modelling approaches that may facilitate the more accurate prediction of local abundance patterns for a wider range of Culicoides species are discussed. © 2011 The Authors. Medical and Veterinary Entomology © 2011 The Royal Entomological Society.
Biocontrol and Advanced Pest Solutions Ltd | Date: 2014-06-03
Antibacterial liquid or powder formulations in the nature of bacteriophage for decontaminating and disinfecting fresh produce and plant material of bacteria. Information, advisory and consultancy services relating to the treatment of products with antibacterial preparations, biocides, bacterial decontaminant preparations and disinfectants and decontaminants for use against bacteria.