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Gebauer G.,Advanced Orthopedic Technologies | Osterman M.,Thomas Jefferson University | Harrop J.,Thomas Jefferson University | Vaccaro A.,Thomas Jefferson University
Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research | Year: 2012

Background Strict criteria have been used before removing cervical collars in patients with injuries who have midline pain or are unable to be reliably examined. This sometimes leads to prolonged immobilization in cervical collars or use of MRI to rule out injury. Several studies suggest a collar may be removed in the absence of fractures, dislocation, or pathologic subluxation on a cervical CT scan. This may avoid the morbidity of prolonged cervical immobilization or cost of advanced imaging study but risks devastating consequences from missing injuries. Case Description We report a patient with a cervical spinal cord injury after removal of a collar after a CT scan was misinterpreted as normal. Retrospective review of the CT showed subtle signs of widening between the spinous processes of the injured level, a finding easily missed without the use of further imaging studies. Literature Review Several articles suggest cervical collars may be safely removed from awake and alert patients and in patients who cannot be reliably examined after a negative CT scan without the need for further imaging. Purposes and Clinical Relevance CT scans are excellent at detecting bony injuries but not ligamentous injuries. Removing cervical collars based on CT scans alone may be expeditious, but some injuries may be missed without further imaging. Our case demonstrates the catastrophic consequences of missing a cervical spine injury and emphasizes the need for maintaining the cervical collar in high-risk patients until proper imaging can be obtained. © The Association of Bone and Joint Surgeons® 2012. Source

Holmes N.,Advanced Orthopedic Technologies | Cronholm P.F.,University of Pennsylvania | Duffy A.J.,Widener University | Webner D.,Crozer Keystone Healthplex Sports Medicine Institute
Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine | Year: 2013

OBJECTIVE: To determine prevalence of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use in college football players and whether positions sustaining the most contact would use NSAIDs more frequently. DESIGN: Prospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: American college football programs. PATIENTS: An anonymous survey was given to 211 college football players before the season. INDEPENDENT VARIABLE: Use of NSAIDs. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The dependent variables are the different patterns in NSAID usage among positions and the frequency of NSAID use before and after the season. RESULTS: Of the athletes surveyed, 95.7% had or were using NSAIDs. Athletes first used NSAIDs in junior high school (45.6%), high school (48.5%), or college (5.8%). Athletes were separated into high (daily or weekly) or low (monthly or rarely) utilizers of NSAIDs. High utilization of NSAIDs was more frequent during the season (50.0%) than in the off-season (14.6%), P < 0.001. High NSAID utilization among all players was more prevalent after than before games (32.7% vs 10.9%, P = 0.002). Players with a higher body mass index (BMI; >28) were significantly higher utilizers of NSAIDs, reporting higher rates of use in season compared with other players (57.4% vs 39.5%, P = 0.011, OR = 2.06). CONCLUSIONS: Use of NSAIDs in collegiate football players is common. It is concerning that those athletes with the highest cardiovascular risk (ie, elevated body mass index) use greater amounts of NSAIDs. Further investigation is needed to delineate the short-term and long-term consequences of NSAID utilization in young athletes. Copyright © 2013 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Smith K.E.,MedShape, Inc. | Garcia M.,MedShape, Inc. | Garcia M.,Georgia Institute of Technology | McAnuff K.,MedShape, Inc. | And 8 more authors.
Knee | Year: 2012

Background: In anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, an interference device achieves soft-tissue graft fixation by radially compressing the graft against the bone. Purpose: The objective of this study was to measure the radial force generated by different interference devices and evaluate the effect of this radial force on the pullout strength of graft-device constructs. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: A resultant force (FR) was used as a representative measure of the total radial force generated. Bovine tendons were fixated in either synthetic bone or porcine tibia using one of following devices: (1) RCI titanium screw, (2) PEEK screw, (3) IntraFix sheath-and-screw device, and (4) ExoShape sheath-and-insert device. FR was measured while each device was inserted into synthetic bone mounted on a test machine (n=5 for each device). In a subsequent test series, graft-device constructs were loaded to failure at 50mm/min. The pullout strength was measured as the ultimate load before failure (n=10 for each device). Results: The FR values generated during insertion into synthetic bone were 777±86N, 865±140N, 1313±198N, and 1780±255N for the RCI screw, PEEK screw, IntraFix, and ExoShape, respectively. The pullout strengths in synthetic bone for the RCI screw, PEEK screw, IntraFix and ExoShape were 883±125N, 716±249N, 1147±142N, and 1233±190N, respectively. Conclusions: These results suggest that the FR generated during interference fixation affects the pullout strength with sheath-based devices providing superior FR compared with interference screws. The use of synthetic bone was validated by comparing the pullout strengths to those when tested in porcine tibia. Clinical relevance: These results could be valuable to a surgeon when determining the best fixation device to use in the clinical setting. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

Girelli R.,Pancreatic Unit Casa Of Cura Pederzoli | Prejano S.,University of Verona | Cataldo I.,University of Verona | Corbo V.,University of Verona | And 3 more authors.
Radiology and Oncology | Year: 2015

Background. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a lethal disease generally refractory to standard chemotherapeutic agents; therefore improvements in anticancer therapies are mandatory. A major determinant of therapeutic resistance in PDAC is the poor drug delivery to neoplastic cells, mainly due to an extensive fibrotic reaction. Electroporation can be used in vivo to increase cancer cells' local uptake of chemotherapeutics (electrochemotherapy, ECT), thus leading to an enhanced tumour response rate. In the present study, we evaluated the in vivo effects of reversible electroporation in normal pancreas in a rabbit experimental model. We also tested the effect of electroporation on pancreatic cancer cell lines in order to evaluate their increased sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents. Materials and methods. The application in vivo of the European Standard Operating Procedure of Electrochemotherapy (ESOPE) pulse protocol (1000 V/cm, 8 pulses, 100 μs, 5 KHz) was tested on the pancreas of normal New Zealand White Rabbits and short and long-term toxicity were assessed. PANC1 and MiaPaCa2 cell lines were tested for in vitro electrochemotherapy experiments with and without electroporation. Levels of cell permeabilization were determined by flow cytometry, whereas cell viability and drug (cisplatin and bleomycin) sensitivity of pulsed cells were measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assay. Results. In healthy rabbits, neither systemic nor local toxic effects due to the electroporation procedure were observed, demonstrating the safety of the optimized electric parameters in the treatment of the pancreas in vivo. In parallel, we established an optimized protocol for ECT in vitro that determined an enhanced anti-cancer effect of bleomycin and cisplatin with respect to treatment without electroporation. Conclusions. Our data suggest that electroporation is a safe procedure in the treatment of PDAC because it does not affect normal pancreatic parenchyma, but has a potentiating effect on cytotoxicity of bleomycin in pancreatic tumour cell lines. Therefore, ECT could be considered as a valid alternative for the local control of non-resectable pancreatic cancer. © 2015, Association of Radiology and Oncology. All rights reserved. Source

Giardino R.,Advanced Orthopedic Technologies | Mazzotti A.,1st Orthopaedic and Traumatologic ClinicRizzoli Orthopedic InstituteBologna40136 Italy | Bigi A.,University of Bologna
Microscopy Research and Technique | Year: 2014

Human adipose derived stem cells have shown chondrogenic differentiation potential in cartilage tissue engineering in combination with biomimetic materials. In this study, the chondrogenic potential of a porous gelatin based scaffold genipin (GNP) crosslinked was investigated in human mesenchymal stem cells obtained from adipose tissue. Cells were cultured up to 4 weeks on the scaffold and on monolayer, MTT assay was performed to evaluate cell viability, light, and transmission electron microscopy were carried out to demonstrate cell proliferation, scaffold adhesion, and cell colonization inside the porous architecture of the biomaterial. The expression of chondrogenic markers such as SOX9, collagen type II, aggregan, and versican was investigated by Real Time PCR. Results showed an high cell viability, adhesion, and colonization of the scaffold. Real Time PCR data demonstrated an upregulation of all the chondrogenic markers analyzed. In conclusion, 3D gelatin GNP crosslinked porous scaffold provides an improved environment for chondrogenic differentiation of stem cells compared with cell monolayer culture system. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

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