Umezawa H.,Research Institute for Ubiquitous Energy Devices |
Shikata S.,Research Institute for Ubiquitous Energy Devices |
Shibata H.,Research Center for Photovoltaic Technologies |
Imanishi T.,Molecular Profiling Research Center for Drug Discovery |
And 8 more authors.
AIST Today (International Edition) | Year: 2013
Diamond is receiving much attention due to its outstanding properties as a power semiconductor material. The new buffer layer is a ZnMgO alloy fabricated by the sputtering method. Advantages of the new method are that ZnMgo is Cd-free and hence is effective to reduce the environmental load and the sputtering method is a dry process which is simple compared to wet processes. The conversion efficiency of the CIGS solar cell using the new buffer layer is 17.5%, which is comparable to that of CIGS solar cells using a conventional CdS buffer layer fabricated by wet processes. Interspecies hybridization after the speciation between humans and chimpanzees has been heated controversy in evolutionary biology. The estimated values varied significantly among chromosomes, the X chromosome being the smallest value, but the variation could be explained by the variation of mutation rates among chromosomes, not by the variation of divergence times.
Nishimura Y.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology |
Suzuki T.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology |
Kondo N.,Advanced Manufacturing Research Institute |
Kita H.,Advanced Manufacturing Research Institute |
Hirao K.,Advanced Manufacturing Research Institute
International Journal of Applied Electromagnetics and Mechanics | Year: 2012
The possibility of inspecting flaws in ceramic materials using Ultrasonic Testing (UT) and X-Ray methods was studied to investigate the reliability of ceramic material joints. First, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images of two grades of ceramics were compared to those acquired by a scanning acoustic microscope (SAM) with respect to the number, and size of flaws. Second, ceramic sample with a known size of internal voids was evaluated by X-Ray-CT. Third, two jointed ceramic specimens were evaluated by X-Ray methods, SAM, and other UT methods. X-Ray methods and UT methods effectively established the safety of ceramic materials for structural uses. © 2012 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.
Sasaki S.,Tokyo University of Science |
Sasaki S.,Advanced Manufacturing Research Institute |
Yagi T.,Tokyo University of Science |
Yagi S.,Tokyo University of Science |
And 3 more authors.
17th International Colloquium Tribology 2010 - Solving Friction and Wear Problems | Year: 2010
The tribological properties of diamond-like coating (DLC) film were evaluated under lubrication with ionic liquids using a high-vacuum pin-on-pin disk sliding tester. Friction coefficients of the ionic liquid lubricating DLC film were not lower than that of the dry sliding at the low load condition under 5N. However, the ionic liquid lubrication improved the critical load value for the wear out of the DLC film. Ionic liquid generated gases during the sliding caused by the tribo-chemical reaction. The generation rate of such decomposed gases was very small and affected a few changes on the total vacuum pressure. Ionic liquid molecules reacted with the DLC surface. Formation of Sulfide and Fluoride was observed on the DLC sliding surface. Developing a high-vacuum tribo-system combining the DLC and ionic liquid, the valance of the reactivity and lubricity becomes very important and should be considered when ionic liquid will be selected or designed. This is an abstract of a paper presented at 17th International Colloquium Tribology (Stuttgart/Ostfildern, Germany 1/19-21/2010).