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Towner R.A.,Advanced Magnetic Resonance Center | Smith N.,Advanced Magnetic Resonance Center | Saunders D.,Advanced Magnetic Resonance Center | De Souza P.C.,Advanced Magnetic Resonance Center | And 8 more authors.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Basis of Disease | Year: 2013

Free radicals play a major role in gliomas. By combining immuno-spin-trapping (IST) and molecular magnetic resonance imaging (mMRI), in vivo levels of free radicals were detected within mice bearing orthotopic GL261 gliomas. The nitrone spin trap DMPO (5,5-dimethyl pyrroline N-oxide) was administered prior to injection of an anti-DMPO probe (anti-DMPO antibody covalently bound to a bovine serum albumin (BSA)-Gd (gadolinium)-DTPA (diethylene triamine penta acetic acid)-biotin MRI contrast agent) to trap tumor-associated free radicals. mMRI detected the presence of anti-DMPO adducts by either a significant sustained increase (p<0.001) in MR signal intensity or a significant decrease (p<0.001) in T1 relaxation, measured as %T1 change. In vitro assessment of the anti-DMPO probe indicated a significant decrease (p<0.0001) in T1 relaxation in GL261 cells that were oxidatively stressed with hydrogen peroxide, compared to controls. The biotin moiety of the anti-DMPO probe was targeted with fluorescently-labeled streptavidin to locate the anti-DMPO probe in excised brain tissues. As a negative control a non-specific IgG antibody covalently bound to the albumin-Gd-DTPA-biotin construct was used. DMPO adducts were also confirmed in tumor tissue from animals administered DMPO, compared to non-tumor brain tissue. GL261 gliomas were found to have significantly increased malondialdehyde (MDA) protein adducts (p<0.001) and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) (p<0.05) compared to normal mouse brain tissue, indicating increased oxidized lipids and proteins, respectively. Co-localization of the anti-DMPO probe with either 3-NT or 4-hydroxynonenal was also observed. This is the first report regarding the detection of in vivo levels of free radicals from a glioma model. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source


Towner R.A.,Advanced Magnetic Resonance Center | Towner R.A.,The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center | Jensen R.L.,University of Utah | Vaillant B.,The Texas Institute | And 5 more authors.
Neuro-Oncology | Year: 2013

Background. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highgrade glioma with poor prognosis. Identification of new biomarkers specific toGBMcould help in disease diagnosis. We have developed and validated a bioinformatics method to predict proteins likely to be suitable as glioma biomarkers via a global microarray meta-analysis to identify uncharacterized genes consistently coexpressed with known glioma-associated genes. Methods. A novel bioinformatics method was implemented called global microarray meta-analysis, using ~16 000microarrayexperiments to identify uncharacterized genes consistently coexpressed with known gliomaassociated genes. These novel biomarkers were validated as proteins highly expressed in human gliomas varying in tumor grades using immunohistochemistry.Glioma gene databases were used to assess delineation of expression of these markers in varying glioma grades and subtypes of GBM. Results. We have identified 5 potential biomarkers-spondin1, Plexin-B2, SLIT3, fibulin-1, and LINGO1-that were validated as proteins highly expressed on the surface of human gliomas using immunohistochemistry. Expression of spondin1, Plexin-B2, and SLIT3 was significantly higher (P < .01) in high-grade gliomas than in low-grade gliomas. These biomarkers were significant discriminators in grade IV gliomas compared with either grade III or II tumors and also distinguished between GBM subclasses.Conclusions. This study strongly suggests that this type of bioinformatics approach has high translational potential to rapidly discernwhich poorly characterizedproteins may be of clinical relevance. © The Author(s) 2013. Source


Dong Y.,Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation | Wu H.,Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation | Ashiqur Rahman H.N.,Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation | Liu Y.,Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science | And 29 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Investigation | Year: 2015

Tumor angiogenesis is critical for cancer progression. In multiple murine models, endothelium-specific epsin deficiency abrogates tumor progression by shifting the balance of VEGFR2 signaling toward uncontrolled tumor angiogenesis, resulting in dysfunctional tumor vasculature. Here, we designed a tumor endothelium-targeting chimeric peptide (UPI) for the purpose of inhibiting endogenous tumor endothelial epsins by competitively binding activated VEGFR2. We determined that the UPI peptide specifically targets tumor endothelial VEGFR2 through an unconventional binding mechanism that is driven by unique residues present only in the epsin ubiquitin-interacting motif (UIM) and the VEGFR2 kinase domain. In murine models of neoangiogenesis, UPI peptide increased VEGF-driven angiogenesis and neovascularization but spared quiescent vascular beds. Further, in tumor-bearing mice, UPI peptide markedly impaired functional tumor angiogenesis, tumor growth, and metastasis, resulting in a notable increase in survival. Coadministration of UPI peptide with cytotoxic chemotherapeutics further sustained tumor inhibition. Equipped with localized tumor endothelium-specific targeting, our UPI peptide provides potential for an effective and alternative cancer therapy. Source


Towner R.A.,Advanced Magnetic Resonance Center | Smith N.,Advanced Magnetic Resonance Center | Doblas S.,Advanced Magnetic Resonance Center | Garteiser P.,Advanced Magnetic Resonance Center | And 6 more authors.
Free Radical Biology and Medicine | Year: 2010

Increased iNOS expression is often found in brain tumors, such as gliomas. The goal of this study was to develop and assess a novel molecular MRI (mMRI) probe for in vivo detection of iNOS in rodent models for gliomas (intracerebral implantation of rat C6 or RG2 cells or ethyl nitrosourea-induced glioma). The probe we used incorporated a Gd-DTPA (gadolinium(III) complex of diethylenetriamine-N,N,N′,N″,N″-pentaacetate) backbone with albumin and biotin moieties and covalent binding of an anti-iNOS antibody (Ab) to albumin (anti-iNOS probe). We used mMRI with the anti-iNOS probe to detect in vivo iNOS levels in gliomas. Nonimmune normal rat IgG coupled to albumin-Gd-DTPA-biotin was used as a control nonspecific contrast agent. By targeting the biotin component of the anti-iNOS probe with streptavidin Cy3, fluorescence imaging confirmed the specificity of the probe for iNOS in glioma tissue. iNOS levels in glioma tumors were also confirmed via Western blots and immunohistochemistry. The presence of plasma membrane-associated iNOS in glioma cells was established by transmission electron microscopy and gold-labeled anti-iNOS Ab. The more aggressive RG2 glioma was not found to have higher levels of iNOS compared to C6. Differences in glioma vascularization and blood-brain barrier permeability between the C6 and the RG2 gliomas are discussed. In vivo assessment of iNOS levels associated with tumor development is quite feasible in heterogeneous tissues with mMRI. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

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