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Perez-Mongiovi D.,Advanced Institute of Health science North ISCS N | Teixeira A.,Private Practice | Caldas I.M.,University of Porto
Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology

Purpose: The aim of this work was to determine the usefulness of the visibility of the dental pulp in lower third molars in forensic age estimation. Methods: Dental pulp visibility on lower third molars was assessed using a sample of 487 orthopantomograms. Intra and inter-observer agreement was determined using the Cohen’s kappa test. A descriptive analysis of the stages according to age was done. The relationship between age and stage attainment was assessed using Chi square test and the strength and direction of the linear relationship between pulp visualization stage and chronological age was evaluated using Spearman rank order correlation (rho). Equations for predicting an age above 21 years were developed using logistic regression. The level of significance was defined at p < 0.05. Results: The relationship between age and stage attainment had statistical significance for both sexes (p < 0.001). There was a medium positive correlation between the two variables for both genders (Spearman ρ = 0.420, p < 0.001 and Spearman ρ = 0.454, p < 0.001, for males and females respectively). The model built for age estimation successfully predicted age over 21 in 96.2 % of the females and in 96.9 % of the males. However, only 19.6 and 27.0 % of predictions were accurate for the group that was younger than 21, for females and males, respectively. Conclusions: The accuracy of predictions for the group younger than 21 years of age was low, meaning that this methodology may not be suitable for age estimation. Still, stage 3 alone proved to be a suitable age marker for determining an age over 21 years. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

Magalhaes T.,University of Porto | Magalhaes T.,National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Science | Magalhaes T.,Forensic Science Center | Santos A.,University of Porto | And 6 more authors.
Archives of Medical Research

Forensic medicine deals with a wide variety of cases. To accomplish the main objectives, this professional field needs to adopt and apply findings from other sciences, namely, different medical specialties and other forensic sciences. The opposite is not yet entirely true due to the fact that forensic medicine deals with cases that are very far away from other medical and scientific interests. It is obvious that this forgotten world of forensic medicine ... is also a new world of opportunities and challenges to research in all scientific areas. © 2013 IMSS. Source

Dinis-Oliveira R.J.,University of Porto | Dinis-Oliveira R.J.,Advanced Institute of Health science North ISCS N | Dinis-Oliveira R.J.,North Technologies | Dinis-Oliveira R.J.,Forensic Science Center | And 3 more authors.
Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods

The low rates of reporting, prosecution and conviction that characterize sexual assault, is likely even more evident in drug-facilitated cases. Typically, in these crimes, victims are incapacitated and left unable to resist sexual advances, unconscious, unable to fight off the abuser or to say no and unable to clearly remember the circumstances surrounding the events due to anterograde amnesia. The consequence is the delay in performing toxicological analysis aggravated by the reluctance of the victim to disclose the crime. Moreover since date rape drugs are often consumed with ethanol and exhibit similar toxicodynamic effects, the diagnosis is erroneously performed as being classical ethanol intoxication. Therefore, it is imperative to rapidly consider toxicological analysis in drug-facilitated sexual assaults. The major focus of this review is to harmonize practical approaches and guidelines to rapidly uncover drug-facilitated sexual assault, namely issues related to when to perform toxicological analysis, toxicological requests, samples to be collected, storage, preservation and transport precautions and xenobiotics or endobiotics to be analyzed. © 2013 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. Source

Mendes R.,National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Science | Santos S.,University of Porto | Taveira F.,National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Science | Taveira F.,University of Porto | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Forensic Sciences

Suicide in children is a rare finding and is probably motivated by acts of impulsiveness. This study aims to contribute to the characterization of child suicide in a forensic perspective in the Portuguese population. Data of forensic autopsies from 2004 to 2012 related to suicide victims under 18 years were reviewed. A total of 17 cases, with a male predominance (64.7%) and a mean age of 15.24 ± 1.348 for both genders, were registered. The leading suicide method was hanging (35.3%), and a suicide note was found in 41.2%. Psychological autopsy proved to be useful in promoting a better understanding of these incidents and their antecedents. This study also offers useful information, namely the implied risk factors, for future programs of suicide research and prevention. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences. Source

Silva C.,University of Porto | Fresco P.,University of Porto | Monteiro J.,University of Porto | Monteiro J.,Advanced Institute of Health science North ISCS N | Rama A.C.R.,University of Coimbra
International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy

Background Evidence-Based Practice requires health care decisions to be based on the best available evidence. The model "Information Mastery" proposes that clinicians should use sources of information that have previously evaluated relevance and validity, provided at the point of care. Drug databases (DB) allow easy and fast access to information and have the benefit of more frequent content updates. Relevant information, in the context of drug therapy, is that which supports safe and effective use of medicines. Accordingly, the European Guideline on the Summary of Product Characteristics (EG-SmPC) was used as a standard to evaluate the inclusion of relevant information contents in DB. Objective To develop and test a method to evaluate relevancy of DB contents, by assessing the inclusion of information items deemed relevant for effective and safe drug use. Method Hierarchical organisation and selection of the principles defined in the EGSmPC; definition of criteria to assess inclusion of selected information items; creation of a categorisation and quantification system that allows score calculation; calculation of relative differences (RD) of scores for comparison with an "ideal" database, defined as the one that achieves the best quantification possible for each of the information items; pilot test on a sample of 9 drug databases, using 10 drugs frequently associated in literature with morbidity-mortality and also being widely consumed in Portugal. Main outcome measure Calculate individual and global scores for clinically relevant information items of drug monographs in databases, using the categorisation and quantification system created. Results A - Method development: selection of sections, subsections, relevant information items and corresponding requisites; system to categorise and quantify their inclusion; score and RD calculation procedure. B - Pilot test: calculated scores for the 9 databases; globally, all databases evaluated significantly differed from the "ideal" database; some DB performed better but performance was inconsistent at subsections level, within the same DB. Conclusion The method developed allows quantification of the inclusion of relevant information items in DB and comparison with an "ideal database". It is necessary to consult diverse DB in order to find all the relevant information needed to support clinical drug use. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

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