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Baldassarre A.,Advanced Imaging Technologies | Capotosto P.,Advanced Imaging Technologies | Committeri G.,Advanced Imaging Technologies | Corbetta M.,University of Washington | Corbetta M.,University of Padua
NeuroImage | Year: 2016

The ability to learn and process visual stimuli more efficiently is important for survival. Previous neuroimaging studies have shown that perceptual learning on a shape identification task differently modulates activity in both frontal-parietal cortical regions and visual cortex (Sigman et al., 2005; Lewis et al., 2009). Specifically, fronto-parietal regions (i.e. intra parietal sulcus, pIPS) became less activated for trained as compared to untrained stimuli, while visual regions (i.e. V2d/V3 and LO) exhibited higher activation for familiar shape. Here, after the intensive training, we employed transcranial magnetic stimulation over both visual occipital and parietal regions, previously shown to be modulated, to investigate their causal role in learning the shape identification task. We report that interference with V2d/V3 and LO increased reaction times to learned stimuli as compared to pIPS and Sham control condition. Moreover, the impairment observed after stimulation over the two visual regions was positive correlated. These results strongly support the causal role of the visual network in the control of the perceptual learning. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.


Deco G.,University Pompeu Fabra | Ponce-Alvarez A.,University Pompeu Fabra | Mantini D.,ETH Zurich | Mantini D.,University of Oxford | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2013

Brain fluctuations at rest are not random but are structured in spatial patterns of correlated activity across different brain areas. The question of how resting-state functional connectivity (FC) emerges from the brain's anatomical connections has motivated several experimental and computational studies to understand structure-function relationships. However, the mechanistic origin of resting state is obscured by large-scale models' complexity, and a close structure-function relation is still an open problem. Thus, a realistic but simple enough description of relevant brain dynamics is needed. Here, we derived a dynamic mean field model that consistently summarizes the realistic dynamics of a detailed spiking and conductance-based synaptic large-scale network, in which connectivity is constrained by diffusion imaging data from human subjects. The dynamic mean field approximates the ensemble dynamics, whose temporal evolution is dominated by the longest time scale of the system. With this reduction, we demonstrated that FC emerges as structured linear fluctuations around a stable low firing activity state close to destabilization. Moreover, the model can be further and crucially simplified into a set of motion equations for statistical moments, providing a direct analytical link between anatomical structure, neural network dynamics, and FC. Our study suggests that FC arises from noise propagation and dynamical slowing down of fluctuations in an anatomically constrained dynamical system. Altogether, the reduction from spiking models to statistical moments presented here provides a new framework to explicitly understand the building up of FC through neuronal dynamics underpinned by anatomical connections and to drive hypotheses in task-evoked studies and for clinical applications. © 2013 the authors.


Sulpizio V.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Sulpizio V.,Laboratory of Neuropsychology | Committeri G.,Advanced Imaging Technologies | Lambrey S.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 4 more authors.
NeuroImage | Year: 2016

The ability to imagine the world from a different viewpoint is a fundamental competence for spatial reorientation and for imagining what another individual sees in the environment. Here, we investigated the neural bases of such an ability using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Healthy participants detected target displacements across consecutive views of a familiar virtual room, either from the perspective of an avatar (primed condition) or in the absence of such a prime (unprimed condition). In the primed condition, the perspective at test always corresponded to the avatar's perspective, while in the unprimed condition it was randomly chosen as 0, 45 or 135 deg of viewpoint rotation. We observed a behavioral advantage in performing a perspective transformation during the primed condition as compared to an equivalent amount of unprimed perspective change. Although many cortical regions (dorsal parietal, parieto-temporo-occipital junction, precuneus and retrosplenial cortex/parieto-occipital sulcus or RSC/POS) were involved in encoding and retrieving target location from different perspectives and were modulated by the amount of viewpoint rotation, the RSC/POS was the only area showing decreased activity in the primed as compared to the unprimed condition, suggesting that this region anticipates the upcoming perspective change. The retrosplenial cortex/parieto-occipital sulcus appears to play a special role in the allocentric coding of heading directions. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.


Deco G.,Cognition Technologies | Deco G.,University Pompeu Fabra | Ponce-Alvarez A.,Cognition Technologies | Hagmann P.,University of Lausanne | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2014

The spontaneous activity of the brain shows different features at different scales. On one hand, neuroimaging studies show that long-range correlations are highly structured in spatiotemporal patterns, known as resting-state networks, on the other hand, neurophysiological reports show that short-range correlations between neighboring neurons are low, despite a large amount of shared presynaptic inputs. Different dynamical mechanisms of local decorrelation have been proposed, among which is feedback inhibition. Here, we investigated the effect of locally regulating the feedback inhibition on the global dynamics of a large-scale brain model, in which the long-range connections are given by diffusion imaging data of human subjects. We used simulations and analytical methods to show that locally constraining the feedback inhibition to compensate for the excess of long-range excitatory connectivity, to preserve the asynchronous state, crucially changes the characteristics of the emergent resting and evoked activity. First, it significantly improves the model's prediction of the empirical human functional connectivity. Second, relaxing this constraint leads to an unrealistic network evoked activity, with systematic coactivation of cortical areas which are components of the default-mode network, whereas regulation of feedback inhibition prevents this. Finally, information theoretic analysis shows that regulation of the local feedback inhibition increases both the entropy and the Fisher information of the network evoked responses. Hence, it enhances the information capacity and the discrimination accuracy of the global network. In conclusion, the local excitation-inhibition ratio impacts the structure of the spontaneous activity and the information transmission at the large-scale brain level. © 2014 the authors.


Ambrosini E.,Advanced Imaging Technologies | Costantini M.,Advanced Imaging Technologies | Sinigaglia C.,University of Milan
Journal of Neurophysiology | Year: 2011

When observing someone else acting on an object, people implement goal-specific eye movement programs that are driven by their own motor representation of the observed action. Usually, however, we observe people acting in contexts where more objects, different in shape and size, are present. Is our brain able to select the intended target even when there are different objects in the visual scene? And if this is the case, what kind of information does our motor system capitalize on? We recorded eye movements while participants observed an actor reaching for and grasping one of two objects requiring two different kinds of grip to be picked up. In a control condition, the actor merely reached for and touched one of the two objects without preshaping her hand according to the target features. Results showed higher accuracy and earlier saccadic movements when participants observed an actually grasping hand than when they observed a mere reaching hand devoid of any kind of target-related preshaping. This clearly suggests that the hand preshaping provided the observer with enough motor cues to proactively and reliably saccade toward the object to be grasped, thus identifying it even when the action target was not previously known. Our findings strongly corroborate the direct matching hypothesis suggesting that in processing others' actions, we take advantage of the same motor knowledge that enables us to efficiently perform those actions. © 2011 the American Physiological Society.


An acoustic hologram imaging system constructed from a machined housing having folded optics. Various surfaces of the housing are machined to provide a precise alignment to the optical members to be connected thereto, such as a mirror, a lens assembly, a light emitting laser diode, a camera, and the like. A three-part lens is described having different materials with different indexes of refraction in order to provide a desired focus of the light. In addition, an optical spatial filter is disclosed in which, according to various embodiments, all, some, or none of the light passing therethrough is attenuated for recording of the optical image of the hologram.


The global Armored Vehicles Upgrade and Retrofit Market is expected to grow at a CAGR of around 3% during 2016-2021. The vendors in the market focus on technological innovation in order to improve the size and weight of the vehicle thus controlling the overall ownership cost.  Budget cuts and limited customer funding specially in Europe and North America has been the top most restraint of the market which would hamper the market growth in the forecast period. As per the MRFR analysis, modernization of military armored vehicles and need for SWaP reductions are the key factor driving the market. The vendors in the market focus on technological innovation in order to improve the size and weight of the vehicle thus controlling the overall ownership cost.  Budget cuts and limited customer funding specially in Europe and North America has been the top most restraint of the market which would hamper the market growth in the forecast period. Taste the market data and market information presented through more than 70 market data tables and figures spread in 103 numbers of pages of the project report. Avail the in-depth table of content TOC & market synopsis on “Global Armored Vehicles Upgrade and Retrofit Market Research Report- Forecast to 2021” Americas is the dominant player in the market with a market share of around 42%, and is likely to lead both in terms of sales and CAGR in the forecast period. APAC will grow significantly, followed by EMEA and Americas. Many countries in APAC are undergoing major military vehicles modernization programs. As a result, the military armoured vehicle upgrade and retrofit market is expected to witness a substantial growth during the forecast period. Get Discount on this report @ https://www.marketresearchfuture.com/check-discount/global-armored-vehicles-upgrade-and-retrofit-market-research-report-forecast-to-2021 This research report provides detailed insights, into various levels of analyses such industry analysis, market share analysis leading market players and their profiles. This report also helps in studying the target segments by providing views on emerging & high-growth segments and market conclusion. Together the market data comprise and discuss with the basic assessments on the competitive scenarios & strategies, of the Global Vehicles Upgrade And Retrofit Market, including the high-growth regions, countries and their political, economic and technological environments. Furthermore the project report also provides views over the historic market values as well as, pricing and cost analysis of the same. Global Airport Passenger Screening Systems Market Information Report by Type (Metal Detectors, Explosive Trace Detectors, Magneto Static Detectors, Full Body Scanners, Advanced Imaging Technologies) and by Geography - Forecast to 2021 https://www.marketresearchfuture.com/reports/global-airport-passenger-screening-systems-market-research-report-forecast-to-2021


News Article | February 20, 2017
Site: marketersmedia.com

— Market Synopsis The Global Airport Passenger Screening Systems Market is expected to grow at a CAGR of around 4.5% during 2016-2021. Infrastructural development, increase in air traffic, strict regulation to counter security threats are the major factors contributing to the growth and development of the market. Global Airport Passenger Screening Systems Market ($ million), 2016-2021 Europe Middle East and Africa (EMEA) is the leading market with approx. 35% of the market share as of 2015. Asia Pacific will grow at the highest CAGR to reach XX million by 2021. Countries such as China, India, Philippines and Indonesia, are planning to invest over $100 billion in new airports over the next decade to accommodate burgeoning passenger traffic in the region, which would have positive impact on the market. Key Findings • The EMEA market was valued at $XX million in 2014 and is expected to reach $XX million by 2019, growing at a CAGR of around 3% • About 30% of global air traffic are from Asia Pacific and is estimated to reach 50% in the next 20 years, which would propel the passenger screening systems market As per the MRFR analysis, the North American Airport Passenger Screening Systems market is poised to reach $XX Billion in 2021, to grow at a CAGR of around 4.5% during the forecasted period. Whereas, EMEA and Asia Pacific will grow at a CAGR of around XX% and XX% respectively Table of Content 1. Introduction 1.1 Report Description 1.2 Research Objective 2. Executive Summary 2.1 Key Findings / Highlights 2.1.1 Investment Opportunities 2.1.2 Market Strategies 2.1.3 Latest Developments 3. Scope of the Study 3.1 Markets Covered 3.2 Years Considered For the Study (2016-2021) 3.2 Geographic Scope 3.3 Key Stakeholders 4. Assumptions and Limitations 5. Research Methodology 5.1 Primary Research 5.2 Secondary Research 5.3 Econometric and Forecasting Model 6. Market Size Estimation 6.1 Top down Approach 6.2 Bottom up Approach 7. Market Factor Analysis 7.1 Value Chain Analysis 7.2 Supply Chain Analysis 7.3 Porter's Five Forces Analysis 8. Market Dynamics 8.1 Drivers 8.2 Restraints 8.3 Opportunities 8.4 Trends 9. Market Segmentation 9.1 By Airport Passenger Screening Systems Types 9.2 By Region 10. Global Airport Passenger Screening Systems Market by Types, 2016-2021 10.1 Market Size by Types ($ Billions) 10.1.1 Metal Detectors 10.1.2 Explosive Trace Detectors 10.1.3 Magneto Static Detectors 10.1.4 Full Body Scanners 10.1.5 Advanced Imaging Technologies Continue…………….. The market report for Airport Passenger Screening Systems Market of Market Research Future comprises of extensive primary research along with the detailed analysis of qualitative as well as quantitative aspects by various industry experts, key opinion leaders to gain the deeper insight of the market and industry performance. The report gives the clear picture of current market scenario which includes historical and projected market size in terms of value and volume, technological advancement, macro economical and governing factors in the market. The report provides details information and strategies of the top key players in the industry. The report also gives a broad study of the different market segments and regions. Related Report Global Armored Vehicles Upgrade and Retrofit Market is expected to grow at a CAGR of around 3% during 2016-2021 https://www.marketresearchfuture.com/reports/armored-vehicles-upgrade-retrofit-market About Market Research Future: At Market Research Future (MRFR), we enable our customers to unravel the complexity of various industries through our Cooked Research Report (CRR), Half-Cooked Research Reports (HCRR), Raw Research Reports (3R), Continuous-Feed Research (CFR), and Market Research & Consulting Services. For more information, please visit https://www.marketresearchfuture.com/reports/airport-passenger-screening-systems-market


— Market Synopsis The global Armored Vehicles Upgrade and Retrofit Market is expected to grow at a CAGR of around 3% during 2016-2021. The vendors in the market focus on technological innovation in order to improve the size and weight of the vehicle thus controlling the overall ownership cost. Budget cuts and limited customer funding specially in Europe and North America has been the top most restraint of the market which would hamper the market growth in the forecast period. Global armored Vehicles Upgrade and Retrofit Market ($ billion), 2016-2021 As per the MRFR analysis, modernization of military armored vehicles and need for SWaP reductions are the key factor driving the market. The vendors in the market focus on technological innovation in order to improve the size and weight of the vehicle thus controlling the overall ownership cost. Budget cuts and limited customer funding specially in Europe and North America has been the top most restraint of the market which would hamper the market growth in the forecast period. Taste the market data and market information presented through more than 70 market data tables and figures spread in 103 numbers of pages of the project report. Avail the in-depth table of content TOC & market synopsis on “Global Armored Vehicles Upgrade and Retrofit Market Research Report- Forecast to 2021” Key Findings • APAC market was valued at $XX billion in 2015, and is expected to reach $XX billion by 2021, growing at a CAGR of around 5% • To reduce the overall ownership cost (including maintenance), “Cost Per Mile” is new parameter on which vendors are working to bring down maintenance costs, fuel costs, and training and operating costs. • Vetronics (vehicle electronics) is the most expensive part of the armored vehicle Regional and Country Analysis Americas is the dominant player in the market with a market share of around 42%, and is likely to lead both in terms of sales and CAGR in the forecast period. APAC will grow significantly, followed by EMEA and Americas. Many countries in APAC are undergoing major military vehicles modernization programs. As a result, the military armoured vehicle upgrade and retrofit market is expected to witness a substantial growth during the forecast period. Table of Content 1. Introduction 1.1 Report Description 1.2 Research Objective 2. Executive Summary 2.1 Key Findings / Highlights 2.1.1 Investment Opportunities 2.1.2 Market Strategies 2.1.3 Latest Developments 3. Scope of the Study 3.1 Markets Covered 3.2 Years Considered For the Study (2016-2021) 3.2 Geographic Scope 3.3 Key Stakeholders 4. Assumptions and Limitations 5. Research Methodology 5.1 Primary Research 5.2 Secondary Research 5.3 Econometric and Forecasting Model 6. Market Size Estimation 6.1 Top down Approach 6.2 Bottom up Approach 7. Market Factor Analysis 7.1 Value Chain Analysis 7.2 Supply Chain Analysis 7.3 Porter's Five Forces Analysis 8. Market Dynamics 8.1 Drivers 8.2 Restraints 8.3 Opportunities 8.4 Trends 9. Market Segmentation 9.1 By Vehicle Types 9.2 By Region 10. Global Armored Vehicles Upgrade and Retrofit Market by Vehicle Types, 2016-2021 10.1 Market Size by Vehicle Types ($ Billions) 10.1.1 Armoured Personnel Carrier (APC) 10.1.2 Mine-Resistant Ambush Protected (MRAP) 10.1.3 Main Battle Tank (MBT) 10.1.4 Others Continue……… Get Discount on this report @ https://www.marketresearchfuture.com/check-discount/global-armored-vehicles-upgrade-and-retrofit-market-research-report-forecast-to-2021 This research report provides detailed insights, into various levels of analyses such industry analysis, market share analysis leading market players and their profiles. This report also helps in studying the target segments by providing views on emerging & high-growth segments and market conclusion. Together the market data comprise and discuss with the basic assessments on the competitive scenarios & strategies, of the Global Vehicles Upgrade And Retrofit Market, including the high-growth regions, countries and their political, economic and technological environments. Furthermore the project report also provides views over the historic market values as well as, pricing and cost analysis of the same. Related Report Global Airport Passenger Screening Systems Market Information Report by Type (Metal Detectors, Explosive Trace Detectors, Magneto Static Detectors, Full Body Scanners, Advanced Imaging Technologies) and by Geography - Forecast to 2021 https://www.marketresearchfuture.com/reports/global-airport-passenger-screening-systems-market-research-report-forecast-to-2021 About Market Research Future: At Market Research Future (MRFR), we enable our customers to unravel the complexity of various industries through our Cooked Research Report (CRR), Half-Cooked Research Reports (HCRR), Raw Research Reports (3R), Continuous-Feed Research (CFR), and Market Research & Consulting Services. For more information, please visit https://www.marketresearchfuture.com/reports/global-armored-vehicles-upgrade-and-retrofit-market-research-report-forecast-to-2021

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