Advanced ICT Research Institute Kobe

Kōbe-shi, Japan

Advanced ICT Research Institute Kobe

Kōbe-shi, Japan
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Kuramoto K.,University of Hyogo | Sakai F.,University of Hyogo | Yoshinori N.,University of Hyogo | Nakamura T.Y.,Japan National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute | And 7 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Biology | Year: 2014

Lipid droplet (LD) is a ubiquitous organelle that stores triacylglycerol and other neutral lipids. Perilipin 5 (Plin5), a member of the perilipin protein family that is abundantly expressed in the heart, is essential to protect LDs from attack by lipases, including adipose triglyceride lipase. Plin5 controls heart metabolism and performance by maintaining LDs under physiological conditions. Aberrant lipid accumulation in the heart leads to organ malfunction, or cardiomyopathy. To elucidate the role of Plin5 in a metabolically disordered state and the mechanism of lipid-induced cardiomyopathy, we studied the effects of streptozotocininduced type 1 diabetes in Plin5-knockout (KO) mice. In contrast to diabetic wild-type mice, diabetic Plin5-KO mice lacked detectable LDs in the heart and did not exhibit aberrant lipid accumulation, excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, or heart malfunction. Moreover, diabetic Plin5-KO mice exhibited lower heart levels of lipotoxic molecules, such as diacylglycerol and ceramide, than wild-type mice. Membrane translocation of protein kinase C and the assembly of NADPH oxidase 2 complex on the membrane were also suppressed. The results suggest that diabetic Plin5-KO mice are resistant to type 1 diabetes-induced heart malfunction due to the suppression of the diacylglycerol/ceramide-protein kinase C pathway and of excessive ROS generation by NADPH oxidase. © 2014, American Society for Microbiology.


PubMed | Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, University of Shizuoka, Kyoto University, Advanced ICT Research Institute Kobe and Okayama University
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2015

In many drug delivery strategies, an inefficient transfer of macromolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids to the cytosol often occurs because of their endosomal entrapment. One of the methods to overcome this problem is photochemical internalization, which is achieved using a photosensitizer and light to facilitate the endosomal escape of the macromolecule. In this study, we examined the molecular mechanism of photochemical internalization of cell penetrating peptide-cargo (macromolecule)-photosensitizer conjugates. We measured the photophysical properties of eight dyes (photosensitizer candidates) and determined the respective endosomal escape efficiencies using these dyes. Correlation plots between these factors indicated that the photogenerated (1)O2 molecules from photosensitizers were highly related to the endosomal escape efficiencies. The contribution of (1)O2 was confirmed using (1)O2 quenchers. In addition, time-lapse fluorescence imaging showed that the photoinduced endosomal escape occurred at a few seconds to a few minutes after irradiation (much longer than (1)O2 lifetime), and that the pH increased in the endosome prior to the endosomal escape of the macromolecule.


Matsumura S.,Kyoto University | Kojidani T.,Advanced ICT Research Institute Kobe | Kojidani T.,Japan Women's University | Kamioka Y.,Kyoto University | And 4 more authors.
Nature Communications | Year: 2016

Despite theoretical and physical studies implying that cell-extracellular matrix adhesion geometry governs the orientation of the cell division axis, the molecular mechanisms that translate interphase adhesion geometry to the mitotic spindle orientation remain elusive. Here, we show that the cellular edge retraction during mitotic cell rounding correlates with the spindle axis. At the onset of mitotic cell rounding, caveolin-1 is targeted to the retracting cortical region at the proximal end of retraction fibres, where ganglioside GM1-enriched membrane domains with clusters of caveola-like structures are formed in an integrin and RhoA-dependent manner. Furthermore, Gαi1-LGN-NuMA, a well-known regulatory complex of spindle orientation, is targeted to the caveolin-1-enriched cortical region to guide the spindle axis towards the cellular edge retraction. We propose that retraction-induced cortical heterogeneity of caveolin-1 during mitotic cell rounding sets the spindle orientation in the context of adhesion geometry.


PubMed | National Institute of Genetics, Kyoto University, Advanced ICT Research Institute Kobe and Kyushu University
Type: | Journal: Nature communications | Year: 2016

Despite theoretical and physical studies implying that cell-extracellular matrix adhesion geometry governs the orientation of the cell division axis, the molecular mechanisms that translate interphase adhesion geometry to the mitotic spindle orientation remain elusive. Here, we show that the cellular edge retraction during mitotic cell rounding correlates with the spindle axis. At the onset of mitotic cell rounding, caveolin-1 is targeted to the retracting cortical region at the proximal end of retraction fibres, where ganglioside GM1-enriched membrane domains with clusters of caveola-like structures are formed in an integrin and RhoA-dependent manner. Furthermore, Gi1-LGN-NuMA, a well-known regulatory complex of spindle orientation, is targeted to the caveolin-1-enriched cortical region to guide the spindle axis towards the cellular edge retraction. We propose that retraction-induced cortical heterogeneity of caveolin-1 during mitotic cell rounding sets the spindle orientation in the context of adhesion geometry.


PubMed | Japan National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Japan Women's University and Advanced ICT Research Institute Kobe
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2015

Knowledge of the mechanisms by which a cell detects exogenous DNA is important for controlling pathogen infection, because most pathogens entail the presence of exogenous DNA in the cytosol, as well as for understanding the cells response to artificially transfected DNA. The cellular response to pathogen invasion has been well studied. However, spatiotemporal information of the cellular response immediately after exogenous double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) appears in the cytosol is lacking, in part because of difficulties in monitoring when exogenous dsDNA enters the cytosol of the cell. We have recently developed a method to monitor endosome breakdown around exogenous materials using transfection reagent-coated polystyrene beads incorporated into living human cells as the objective for microscopic observations. In the present study, using dsDNA-coated polystyrene beads (DNA-beads) incorporated into living cells, we show that barrier-to-autointegration factor (BAF) bound to exogenous dsDNA immediately after its appearance in the cytosol at endosome breakdown. The BAF(+) DNA-beads then assembled a nuclear envelope (NE)-like membrane and avoided autophagy that targeted the remnants of the endosome membranes. Knockdown of BAF caused a significant decrease in the assembly of NE-like membranes and increased the formation of autophagic membranes around the DNA-beads, suggesting that BAF-mediated assembly of NE-like membranes was required for the DNA-beads to evade autophagy. Importantly, BAF-bound beads without dsDNA also assembled NE-like membranes and avoided autophagy. We propose a new role for BAF: remodeling intracellular membranes upon detection of dsDNA in mammalian cells.


Ding D.-Q.,Advanced ICT Research Institute Kobe | Haraguchi T.,Advanced ICT Research Institute Kobe | Haraguchi T.,Osaka University | Hiraoka Y.,Advanced ICT Research Institute Kobe | Hiraoka Y.,Osaka University
Nucleus (United States) | Year: 2012

Pairing and recombination of homologous chromosomes are essential for ensuring correct segregation of chromosomes in meiosis. In S. pombe, chromosomes are first bundled at the telomeres (forming a telomere bouquet) and then aligned by oscillatory movement of the elongated "horsetail" nucleus (Fig. 1).1,2 Telomere clustering and subsequent chromosome alignment promote pairing of homologous chromosomes.3-5 However, this telomere-bundled alignment of chromosomes cannot be responsible for the specificity of chromosome pairing. Thus, there must be some mechanism to facilitate recognition of homologous partners after telomere clustering. Recent studies in S. pombe have shown that RNA transcripts retained on the chromosome, or RNA bodies, may play a role in recognition of homologous chromosomes for pairing (Fig. 1).6 Acting as fiducial markers of homologous loci they would abrogate the need for direct DNA sequence homology searching. © 2012 Landes Bioscience.


Ding D.-Q.,Advanced ICT Research Institute Kobe | Haraguchi T.,Advanced ICT Research Institute Kobe | Haraguchi T.,Osaka University | Hiraoka Y.,Advanced ICT Research Institute Kobe | Hiraoka Y.,Osaka University
Chromosome Research | Year: 2013

Meiosis is a process of fundamental importance for sexually reproducing eukaryotes. During meiosis, homologous chromosomes pair with each other and undergo homologous recombination, ultimately producing haploid sets of recombined chromosomes that will be inherited by the offspring. Compared with the extensive progress that has been made in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying recombination, how homologous sequences pair with each other is still poorly understood. The diversity of the underlying mechanisms of pairing present in different organisms further increases the complexity of this problem. Involvement of meiosis-specific noncoding RNA in the pairing of homologous chromosomes has been found in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Although different organisms may have developed other or additional systems that are involved in chromosome pairing, the findings in S. pombe will provide new insights into understanding the roles of noncoding RNA in meiosis. © 2013 The Author(s).


PubMed | Advanced ICT Research Institute Kobe
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Chromosome research : an international journal on the molecular, supramolecular and evolutionary aspects of chromosome biology | Year: 2013

Meiosis is a process of fundamental importance for sexually reproducing eukaryotes. During meiosis, homologous chromosomes pair with each other and undergo homologous recombination, ultimately producing haploid sets of recombined chromosomes that will be inherited by the offspring. Compared with the extensive progress that has been made in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying recombination, how homologous sequences pair with each other is still poorly understood. The diversity of the underlying mechanisms of pairing present in different organisms further increases the complexity of this problem. Involvement of meiosis-specific noncoding RNA in the pairing of homologous chromosomes has been found in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Although different organisms may have developed other or additional systems that are involved in chromosome pairing, the findings in S. pombe will provide new insights into understanding the roles of noncoding RNA in meiosis.


PubMed | Advanced ICT Research Institute Kobe
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nucleus (Austin, Tex.) | Year: 2012

Pairing and recombination of homologous chromosomes are essential for ensuring correct segregation of chromosomes in meiosis. In S. pombe, chromosomes are first bundled at the telomeres (forming a telomere bouquet) and then aligned by oscillatory movement of the elongated horsetail nucleus. Telomere clustering and subsequent chromosome alignment promote pairing of homologous chromosomes. However, this telomere-bundled alignment of chromosomes cannot be responsible for the specificity of chromosome pairing. Thus, there must be some mechanism to facilitate recognition of homologous partners after telomere clustering. Recent studies in S. pombe have shown that RNA transcripts retained on the chromosome, or RNA bodies, may play a role in recognition of homologous chromosomes for pairing. Acting as fiducial markers of homologous loci they would abrogate the need for direct DNA sequence homology searching.


PubMed | Advanced ICT Research Institute Kobe
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Cell structure and function | Year: 2014

In meiosis, pairing and recombination of homologous chromosomes are crucial for the correct segregation of chromosomes, and substantial movements of chromosomes are required to achieve homolog pairing. During this process, it is known that telomeres cluster to form a bouquet arrangement of chromosomes. The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe provides a striking example of bouquet formation, after which the entire nucleus oscillates between the cell poles (these oscillations are generally called horsetail nuclear movements) while the telomeres remain clustered to the spindle pole body (SPB; a centrosome-equivalent structure in fungi) at the leading edge of the moving nucleus. S. pombe mutants defective in telomere clustering frequently form aberrant spindles, such as monopolar or nonpolar spindles, leading to missegregation of the chromosomes at the subsequent meiotic divisions. Here we demonstrate that such defects in meiotic spindle formation caused by loss of meiotic telomere clustering are rescued when nuclear movement is prevented. On the other hand, stopping nuclear movement does not rescue defects in telomere clustering, nor chromosome missgregation even in cells that have formed a bipolar spindle. These results suggest that movement of the SPB without attachment of telomeres leads to the formation of aberrant spindles, but that recovering bipolar spindles is not sufficient for rescue of chromosome missegregation in mutants lacking telomere clustering.

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