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Matsumura S.,Kyoto University | Kojidani T.,Advanced ICT Research Institute Kobe | Kojidani T.,Japan Womens University | Kamioka Y.,Kyoto University | And 4 more authors.
Nature Communications | Year: 2016

Despite theoretical and physical studies implying that cell-extracellular matrix adhesion geometry governs the orientation of the cell division axis, the molecular mechanisms that translate interphase adhesion geometry to the mitotic spindle orientation remain elusive. Here, we show that the cellular edge retraction during mitotic cell rounding correlates with the spindle axis. At the onset of mitotic cell rounding, caveolin-1 is targeted to the retracting cortical region at the proximal end of retraction fibres, where ganglioside GM1-enriched membrane domains with clusters of caveola-like structures are formed in an integrin and RhoA-dependent manner. Furthermore, Gαi1-LGN-NuMA, a well-known regulatory complex of spindle orientation, is targeted to the caveolin-1-enriched cortical region to guide the spindle axis towards the cellular edge retraction. We propose that retraction-induced cortical heterogeneity of caveolin-1 during mitotic cell rounding sets the spindle orientation in the context of adhesion geometry. Source

Kuramoto K.,University of Hyogo | Sakai F.,University of Hyogo | Yoshinori N.,University of Hyogo | Nakamura T.Y.,Japan National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute | And 7 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Biology | Year: 2014

Lipid droplet (LD) is a ubiquitous organelle that stores triacylglycerol and other neutral lipids. Perilipin 5 (Plin5), a member of the perilipin protein family that is abundantly expressed in the heart, is essential to protect LDs from attack by lipases, including adipose triglyceride lipase. Plin5 controls heart metabolism and performance by maintaining LDs under physiological conditions. Aberrant lipid accumulation in the heart leads to organ malfunction, or cardiomyopathy. To elucidate the role of Plin5 in a metabolically disordered state and the mechanism of lipid-induced cardiomyopathy, we studied the effects of streptozotocininduced type 1 diabetes in Plin5-knockout (KO) mice. In contrast to diabetic wild-type mice, diabetic Plin5-KO mice lacked detectable LDs in the heart and did not exhibit aberrant lipid accumulation, excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, or heart malfunction. Moreover, diabetic Plin5-KO mice exhibited lower heart levels of lipotoxic molecules, such as diacylglycerol and ceramide, than wild-type mice. Membrane translocation of protein kinase C and the assembly of NADPH oxidase 2 complex on the membrane were also suppressed. The results suggest that diabetic Plin5-KO mice are resistant to type 1 diabetes-induced heart malfunction due to the suppression of the diacylglycerol/ceramide-protein kinase C pathway and of excessive ROS generation by NADPH oxidase. © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. Source

Ding D.-Q.,Advanced ICT Research Institute Kobe | Haraguchi T.,Advanced ICT Research Institute Kobe | Haraguchi T.,Osaka University | Hiraoka Y.,Advanced ICT Research Institute Kobe | Hiraoka Y.,Osaka University
Nucleus (United States) | Year: 2012

Pairing and recombination of homologous chromosomes are essential for ensuring correct segregation of chromosomes in meiosis. In S. pombe, chromosomes are first bundled at the telomeres (forming a telomere bouquet) and then aligned by oscillatory movement of the elongated "horsetail" nucleus (Fig. 1).1,2 Telomere clustering and subsequent chromosome alignment promote pairing of homologous chromosomes.3-5 However, this telomere-bundled alignment of chromosomes cannot be responsible for the specificity of chromosome pairing. Thus, there must be some mechanism to facilitate recognition of homologous partners after telomere clustering. Recent studies in S. pombe have shown that RNA transcripts retained on the chromosome, or RNA bodies, may play a role in recognition of homologous chromosomes for pairing (Fig. 1).6 Acting as fiducial markers of homologous loci they would abrogate the need for direct DNA sequence homology searching. © 2012 Landes Bioscience. Source

Ding D.-Q.,Advanced ICT Research Institute Kobe | Haraguchi T.,Advanced ICT Research Institute Kobe | Haraguchi T.,Osaka University | Hiraoka Y.,Advanced ICT Research Institute Kobe | Hiraoka Y.,Osaka University
Chromosome Research | Year: 2013

Meiosis is a process of fundamental importance for sexually reproducing eukaryotes. During meiosis, homologous chromosomes pair with each other and undergo homologous recombination, ultimately producing haploid sets of recombined chromosomes that will be inherited by the offspring. Compared with the extensive progress that has been made in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying recombination, how homologous sequences pair with each other is still poorly understood. The diversity of the underlying mechanisms of pairing present in different organisms further increases the complexity of this problem. Involvement of meiosis-specific noncoding RNA in the pairing of homologous chromosomes has been found in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Although different organisms may have developed other or additional systems that are involved in chromosome pairing, the findings in S. pombe will provide new insights into understanding the roles of noncoding RNA in meiosis. © 2013 The Author(s). Source

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