Larson D.R.,Mayo Medical School |
Maas M.L.,Mayo Medical School |
Jen J.,Advanced Genomics Technology Center
Journal of Orthopaedic Research | Year: 2012
This study investigated the comparative ability of bone marrow and skeletal muscle derived stromal cells (BMSCs and SMSCs) to express a tenocyte phenotype, and whether this expression could be augmented by growth and differentiation factor-5 (GDF-5). Tissue harvest was performed on the hind limbs of seven dogs. Stromal cells were isolated via serial expansion in culture. After four passages, tenogenesis was induced using either ascorbic acid alone or in conjunction with GDF-5. CD44, tenomodulin, collagen I, and collagen III expression levels were compared for each culture condition at 7 and 14 days following induction. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed to evaluate cell morphology and production of tenomodulin and collagen I. SMSCs and BMSCs were successfully isolated in culture. Following tenocytic induction, SMSCs demonstrated an increased mean relative expression of tenomodulin, collagen I, and collagen III at 14 days. BMSCs only showed increased mean relative expression of collagen I, and collagen III at 14 days. IHC revealed positive staining for tenomodulin and collagen I at 14 days for both cell types. The morphology of skeletal muscle derived stromal cells at 14 days had an organized appearance in contrast to the haphazard arrangement of the bone marrow derived cells. GDF-5 did not affect gene expression, cell staining, or cell morphology significantly. Stromal cells from either bone marrow or skeletal muscle can be induced to increase expression of matrix genes; however, based on expression of tenomodulin and cell culture morphology SMSCs may be a more ideal candidate for tenocytic differentiation. © 2012 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 30:1710-1718, 2012.
Ling T.-Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University |
Ling T.-Y.,Mayo Medical School |
Wang X.-L.,Mayo Medical School |
Chai Q.,Mayo Medical School |
And 13 more authors.
Heart Rhythm | Year: 2013
Background MicroRNAs are important regulators of gene expression, including those involving electrical remodeling in atrial fibrillation (AF). Recently, KCNN3, the gene that encodes the small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel 3 (SK3), was found to be strongly associated with AF. Objectives To evaluate the changes in atrial myocardial microRNAs in patients with permanent AF and to determine the role of microRNA on the regulation of cardiac SK3 expression. Methods Atrial tissue obtained during cardiac surgery from patients (4 sinus rhythm and 4 permanent AF) was analyzed by using microRNA arrays. Potential targets of microRNAs were predicted by using software programs. The effects of specific microRNAs on target gene expression were evaluated in HL-1 cells from a continuously proliferating mouse hyperplastic atrial cardiomyocyte cell line. Interactions between microRNAs and targets were further evaluated by using luciferase reporter assay and by using Argonaute pull-down assay. Results Twenty-one microRNAs showed significant (>2-fold) changes in AF. MicroRNA 499 (miR-499) was upregulated by 2.33-fold (P <.01) in AF atria, whereas SK3 protein expression was downregulated by 46% (P <.05). Transfection of miR-499 mimic in HL-1 cells resulted in the downregulation of SK3 protein expression, while that of miR-499 inhibitor upregulated SK3 expression. Binding of miR-499 to the 3′ untranslated region of KCNN3 was confirmed by luciferase reporter assay and by the increased presence of SK3 mRNA in Argonaute pulled-down microRNA-induced silencing complexes after transfection with miR-499. Conclusion Atrial miR-499 is significantly upregulated in AF, leading to SK3 downregulation and possibly contributing to the electrical remodeling in AF. © 2013 Heart Rhythm Society.
Shekunov J.,Rochester College |
De Groen P.C.,Mayo Medical School |
Lindor N.M.,Mayo Medical School |
Klee G.G.,Foundation Medicine |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of AAPOS | Year: 2011
Purpose: Hereditary hyperferritinemia cataract syndrome (HHCS), an autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by hyperferritinemia and bilateral cataracts, is caused by mutations in the iron-responsive element of the ferritin light chain (FTL) gene. The purpose of this study is to describe the genotypic and phenotypic manifestations of HHCS observed in 2 large sets of unrelated American families. Methods: Forty-five patients were recruited from 2 unrelated families. Each underwent ophthalmological and general physical evaluation as well as laboratory testing of serum ferritin, iron, transferrin saturation, and total iron binding capacity. Serum DNA was evaluated for mutations by DNA amplification and sequencing of the FTL gene. Results: Numerous cortical and nuclear white opacities in a stellate pattern occurred in 22 affected individuals and were the only clinical manifestation of HHCS. Of the 22, 16 (73%) demonstrated >1.00 D of astigmatism. Genetic analysis revealed mutation G32A in Pedigree 1 and mutation G32T in Pedigree 2, both heterozygous and located in the iron-responsive element of the ferritin light chain mRNA. Serum ferritin levels of affected subjects ranged from 555 to 2,453 μg/L (normal range, 24-336 μg/L male, 11-307 μg/L female), with greater ferritin levels and more severe cataracts associated with mutation G32A. Conclusions: Most clinical and genetic findings from these families are consistent with previous reports of HHCS. Astigmatism, previously not associated with HHCS, was present in the majority. Ferritin levels and age of cataract surgery varied among subjects with both FTL gene mutations, suggesting that phenotypic variability is modulated by other genetic or environmental factors. Copyright © 2011 Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus.
Yadav V.K.,Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology |
Thakur R.K.,Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology |
Eckloff B.,Advanced Genomics Technology Center |
Baral A.,Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology |
And 9 more authors.
Nucleic acids research | Year: 2014
Previous studies have analyzed patterns of transcription, transcription factor (TF) binding or mapped nucleosome occupancy across the genome. These suggest that the three aspects are genetically connected but the cause and effect relationships are still unknown. For example, physiologic TF binding studies involve many TFs, consequently, it is difficult to assign nucleosome reorganization to the binding site occupancy of any particular TF. Therefore, several aspects remain unclear: does TF binding influence nucleosome (re)organizations locally or impact the chromatin landscape at a more global level; are all or only a fraction of TF binding a result of reorganization in nucleosome occupancy and do all TF binding and associated changes in nucleosome occupancy result in altered gene expression? With these in mind, following characterization of two states (before and after induction of a single TF of choice) we determined: (i) genomic binding sites of the TF, (ii) promoter nucleosome occupancy and (iii) transcriptome profiles. Results demonstrated that promoter-proximal TF binding influenced expression of the target gene when it was coupled to nucleosome repositioning at or close to its binding site in most cases. In contrast, only in few cases change in target gene expression was found when TF binding occurred without local nucleosome reorganization. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.
Feldman A.L.,Mayo Medical School |
Dogan A.,Mayo Medical School |
Smith D.I.,Mayo Medical School |
Law M.E.,Mayo Medical School |
And 7 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2011
The genetics of peripheral T-cell lymphomas are poorly understood. The most well-characterized abnormalities are translocations involving ALK, occurring in approximately half of anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCLs). To gain insight into the genetics of ALCLs lacking ALK translocations, we combined mate-pair DNA library construction, massively parallel ("Next Generation") sequencing, and a novel bioinformatic algorithm. We identified a balanced translocation disrupting the DUSP22 phosphatase gene on 6p25.3 and adjoining the FRA7H fragile site on 7q32.3 in a systemic ALK-negative ALCL. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization, we demonstrated that the t(6;7)(p25.3;q32.3) was recurrent in ALK-negative ALCLs. Furthermore, t(6;7)(p25.3; q32.3) was associated with down-regulation of DUSP22 and up-regulation of MIR29 microRNAs on 7q32.3. These findings represent the first recurrent translocation reported in ALK-negative ALCL and highlight the utility of massively parallel genomic sequencing to discover novel translocations in lymphoma and other cancers. © 2011 by The American Society of Hematology.
Vasmatzis G.,Center for Individualized Medicine |
Johnson S.H.,Center for Individualized Medicine |
Knudson R.A.,Mayo Medical School |
Ketterling R.P.,Mayo Medical School |
And 20 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2012
Peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs) are aggressive malignancies of mature T lymphocytes with 5-year overall survival rates of only ∼ 35%. Improvement in outcomes has been stymied by poor understanding of the genetics and molecular pathogenesis of PTCL, with a resulting paucity of molecular targets for therapy. We developed bioinformatic tools to identify chromosomal rearrangements using genome-wide, next-generation sequencing analysis of mate-pair DNA libraries and applied these tools to 16 PTCL patient tissue samples and 6 PTCL cell lines. Thirteen recurrent abnormalities were identified, of which 5 involved p53-related genes (TP53, TP63, CDKN2A, WWOX, and ANKRD11). Among these abnormalities were novel TP63 rearrangements encoding fusion proteins homologous to ΔNp63, a dominant-negative p63 isoform that inhibits the p53 pathway. TP63 rearrangements were seen in 11 (5.8%) of 190 PTCLs and were associated with inferior overall survival; they also were detected in 2 (1.2%) of 164 diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. As TP53 mutations are rare in PTCL compared with other malignancies, our findings suggest that a constellation of alternate genetic abnormalities may contribute to disruption of p53-associated tumor suppressor function in PTCL. © 2012 by The American Society of Hematology.
Rodriguez E.F.,Mayo Medical School |
Scheithauer B.W.,Mayo Medical School |
Giannini C.,Mayo Medical School |
Rynearson A.,Mayo Medical School |
And 8 more authors.
Acta Neuropathologica | Year: 2011
Pilocytic astrocytomas (PA) are well-differentiated gliomas having a favorable prognosis when compared with other diffuse or infiltrative astrocytomas. Molecular genetic abnormalities and activation of signaling pathways associated with clinically aggressive PA and histologically anaplastic PA have not been adequately studied. We performed molecular genetic, gene expression, and immunohistochemical studies using three PA subsets, including conventional PA (n = 43), clinically aggressive/recurrent PA (n = 24), and histologically anaplastic PA (n = 25). A clinical diagnosis of NF1 was present in 28% of anaplastic PA. Molecular cytogenetic studies demonstrated heterozygous PTEN/10q and homozygous p16 deletions in 6/19 (32%) and 3/15 (20%) cases of anaplastic PA, respectively, but in neither of the two other groups. BRAF duplication was identified in 33% of sporadic anaplastic PA and 63% of cerebellar examples. BRAFV600E mutation was absent in four (of 4) sporadic cases lacking duplication. IDH1R132H immunohistochemistry was negative in 16 (of 16) cases. Neither PDGFRA nor EGFR amplifications were present. pERK staining levels were similar among the three PA subsets, but a stepwise increase in cytoplasmic pAKT and to a lesser extent pS6 immunoreactivity was noted by immunohistochemistry in aggressive PA groups. This was particularly true in histologically anaplastic PA when compared with conventional PA (p < 0.001 and p = 0.005, respectively). In addition, PTEN expression at the mRNA level was decreased in histologically anaplastic PA when compared to the other groups (p = 0.05). In summary, activation of the PI3K/AKT in addition to MAPK/ERK signaling pathways may underlie biological aggressiveness in PA. Specifically, it may mediate the increased proliferative activity observed in histologically anaplastic PA. © Springer-Verlag 2010.
Hopp K.,Mayo Medical School |
Heyer C.M.,Mayo Medical School |
Hommerding C.J.,Mayo Medical School |
Henke S.A.,Advanced Genomics Technology Center |
And 9 more authors.
Human Molecular Genetics | Year: 2011
Meckel syndrome (MKS) is an embryonic lethal, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by polycystic kidney disease, central nervous system defects, polydactyly and liver fibrosis. This disorder is thought to be associated with defects in primary cilia; therefore, it is classed as a ciliopathy. To date, six genes have been commonly associated with MKS (MKS1, TMEM67, TMEM216, CEP290, CC2D2A and RPGRIP1L). However, mutation screening of these genes revealed two mutated alleles in only just over half of our MKS cohort (46 families), suggesting an even greater level of genetic heterogeneity. To explore the full genetic complexity of MKS, we performed exon-enriched next-generation sequencing of 31 ciliopathy genes in 12 MKS pedigrees using RainDance microdroplet-PCR enrichment and IlluminaGAIIx next-generation sequencing. In family M456, we detected a splice-donor site change in a novel MKS gene, B9D1. The B9D1 protein is structurally similar to MKS1 and has been shown to be of importance for ciliogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans. Reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis of fetal RNA revealed, hemizygously, a single smaller mRNA product with a frameshifting exclusion of B9D1 exon 4. ArrayCGH showed that the second mutation was a 1.713 Mb de novo deletion completely deleting the B9D1 allele. Immunofluorescence analysis highlighted a significantly lower level of ciliated patient cells compared to controls, confirming a role for B9D1 in ciliogenesis. The fetus inherited an additional likely pathogenic novel missense change to a second MKS gene, CEP290; p.R2210C, suggesting oligogenic inheritance in this disorder. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.
Murphy S.J.,Mayo Medical School |
Cheville J.C.,Mayo Medical School |
Zarei S.,Mayo Medical School |
Johnson S.H.,Mayo Medical School |
And 6 more authors.
DNA Research | Year: 2012
High-throughput next-generation sequencing provides a revolutionary platform to unravel the precise DNA aberrations concealed within subgroups of tumour cells. However, in many instances, the limited number of cells makes the application of this technology in tumour heterogeneity studies a challenge. In order to address these limitations, we present a novel methodology to partner laser capture microdissection (LCM) with sequencing platforms, through a whole-genome amplification (WGA) protocol performed in situ directly on LCM engrafted cells. We further adapted current Illumina mate pair (MP) sequencing protocols to the input of WGA DNA and used this technology to investigate large genomic rearrangements in adjacent Gleason Pattern 3 and 4 prostate tumours separately collected by LCM. Sequencing data predicted genome coverage and depths similar to unamplified genomic DNA, with limited repetition and bias predicted in WGA protocols. Mapping algorithms developed in our laboratory predicted high-confidence rearrangements and selected events each demonstrated the predicted fusion junctions upon validation. Rearrangements were additionally confirmed in unamplified tissue and evaluated in adjacent benign-appearing tissues. A detailed understanding of gene fusions that characterize cancer will be critical in the development of biomarkers to predict the clinical outcome. The described methodology provides a mechanism of efficiently defining these events in limited pure populations of tumour tissue, aiding in the derivation of genomic aberrations that initiate cancer and drive cancer progression. © The Author 2012.
Rossetti S.,Mayo Medical School |
Hopp K.,Mayo Medical School |
Sikkink R.A.,Advanced Genomics Technology Center |
Sundsbak J.L.,Mayo Medical School |
And 7 more authors.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology | Year: 2012
Mutations in two large multi-exon genes, PKD1 and PKD2, cause autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). The duplication of PKD1 exons 1-32 as six pseudogenes on chromosome 16, the high level of allelic heterogeneity, and the cost of Sanger sequencing complicate mutation analysis, which can aid diagnostics of ADPKD. We developed and validated a strategy to analyze both the PKD1 and PKD2 genes using next-generation sequencing by pooling long-range PCR amplicons and multiplexing barcoded libraries. We used this approach to characterize a cohort of 230 patients with ADPKD. This process detected definitely and likely pathogenic variants in 115 (63%) of 183 patients with typical ADPKD. In addition, we identified atypical mutations, a gene conversion, and one missed mutation resulting from allele dropout, andwe characterized the pattern of deep intronic variation for both genes. In summary, this strategy involving next-generation sequencing is a model for future genetic characterization of large ADPKD populations. Copyright © 2012 by the American Society of Nephrology.