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Patent
Advanced Diamond Technologies, Inc | Date: 2014-07-16

An interchangeable cumberbund with integrated wiring to allow for connecting a variety of electronic devices for an intended purpose or mission and exchanging a configured garment for another. The reconfigurable cumberbund allows for multiple quick-disconnect cable harnesses to be weaved into the cumberbund which enables rapid and convenient removal of hardware that incorporates all I/O to a computer. The reconfigurable cumberbund connected to a wearable tactical vest containing a mobile ultra-rugged personal computer is the essential combination that allows hands-free use by the user.


Patent
Advanced Diamond Technologies, Inc | Date: 2016-06-10

A novel durable composite diamond electrode comprising at least a relatively thicker conductive layer of UNCD (Ultrananocrystalline Diamond) layer with a Youngs modulus of less than 900 GPa on a niobium substrate underlying a relatively thinner conductive MCD (Microcrystalline Diamond) layer with a Youngs modulus of greater than 900 GPa, has been shown to exhibit superior delamination resistance under extreme shear stress during electrochemical oxidation reliability testing. Highly accelerated lifetime testing of these durable composite diamond electrodes at a constant current density of 2.5 amps/cm^(2 )(25000 amps/m^(2)) in a 1 M NaCl (58 g/L) solution, have demonstrated lifetimes before delamination failure of greater than 2000 hours (i.e. >5000 Ahr/cm^(2)). Using a conservative estimate of lifetime to failure with a cubed dependence on current density, the lifetime at a more typical operating current density of 0.25 amps/cm^(2 )(2500 amps/m^(2)) would be at least 2,000,000 hours (228 years) and >3.5 years at 1.0 amps/cm^(2 )(a more typical current density for ozone generation). It is hypothesized that this improvement in durable diamond electrode reliability is due to a combination of stress relief by the composite film with a slightly softer underlying UNCD layer, a disruption of the fracture propagation mechanism between the two layer(s), and the near ideal chemical and thermal expansion coefficient match between the two diamond layers and the hardness and durability of the overlying MCD layer as deposited on an electrode substrate. The combination of a thick but softer underlying UNCD layer with a thin but harder overlying MCD layer provides an excellent compromise between the low deposition cost and conductivity of UNCD with the extreme hardness, large grain size and unparalleled chemical and biochemical inertness of even a thin layer of MCD. The inventive two layer diamond composite electrode can be applied to any electrochemical application requiring extreme voltages/current densities, extreme reliability, hardness or biomedical inertness such as electrochemical systems to generate ozone, hydroxyl radicals, deep sea chlorine generators or biomedical electrode applications such as pacemakers, biosensors, cardiovascular devices or automatic defibrillators.


Patent
Advanced Diamond Technologies, Inc | Date: 2015-04-23

An electrochemical system and method are disclosed for On Site Generation (OSG) of oxidants, such as free available chlorine, mixed oxidants and persulfate. Operation at high current density, using at least a diamond anode, provides for higher current efficiency, extended lifetime operation, and improved cost efficiency. High current density operation, in either a single pass or recycle mode, provides for rapid generation of oxidants, with high current efficiency, which potentially allows for more compact systems. Beneficially, operation in reverse polarity for a short cleaning cycle manages scaling, provides for improved efficiency and electrode lifetime and allows for use of impure feedstocks without requiring water softeners. Systems have application for generation of chlorine or other oxidants, including mixed oxidants providing high disinfection rate per unit of oxidant, e.g. for water treatment to remove microorganisms or for degradation of organics in industrial waste water.


Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 725.36K | Year: 2015

The continuous push towards higher photon energies and higher imaging resolution in X-ray analysis systems has brought current state-of-theart X-ray focusing zone plates to a limit of 20 nm resolution at <10 keV photon energies. Zone plates for focusing with same or better resolution at energies up to 25 keV are now necessary for imaging and elemental analyses of multi-element samples, such as nanocomposites, biological or geological samples, and nanofabricated electronic devices. Zone plates with such parameters are not yet available, while even for energies <10 keV, there is a significant shortage of commercially available zone plates, amplified by the demand for these devices in commercial X-ray microscopes. What is being done: Hereby, Fresnel zone plates with composite architecture will be developed for focusing hard X-rays up to 25 keV with <20 nm resolution, using ultra-nanocrystalline diamond films as a high-performance substrates, electron-beam lithography, Iridium damascene, and a sequential lithography approach for aspect ratio enhancement. Phase I proved the base steps for achieving such zone plates possible: obtaining flat diamond membranes with different conductivity layers, high resolution electron beam lithography on top of diamond layers, transfer of the pattern into diamond, compatibility of the Iridium films deposited by atomic layer deposition with additional growth of diamond on top, the possibility of polishing metal-coated zone plates without damaging the nanostructures and wafer scale fabrication of zone plates. Phase I also implemented the composite design in conjunction with a novel, superior design of buttresses for preventing the collapse of resist patterns. Phase II will refine some of the processes already proven possible, develop the sequential lithography scheme for enhancing the thickness of the zone plates, and integrate them into one fabrication sequence for obtaining advanced zone plates at wafer scale. The zone plates with composite architecture will be accompanied by suited beam stops and apertures to be tested on X-ray beam lines of the Advanced Photon Source/Argonne National Laboratory, then will become available for commercialization. Commercial Applications: While developing zone plates for the hard X-ray regime is a significant milestone for X-ray techniques in general with significant ramifications in other sciences, stress free/flat, layered, and nanostructured diamond membranes will dramatically impact a series of other applications, including diamond grids for transmission electron microscopy elemental analysis, electron strippers for proton beam accelerators, pressure sensors, microphones, loudspeakers, and many others with large market potential.


Grant
Agency: Department of Health and Human Services | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 249.92K | Year: 2013

DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): There is an acute need for the development of a new class of selective and sensitive portable analytical sensors to enable reliable monitoring of multiple classes of chemical analytes in complex biomatrices. Current preferred methods for determining the concentration of analytes are spectroscopy and voltammetry. We propose the development of electrochemical microarray sensors using boron-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) that promise superior sensitivity and specificity, fast response time, low background currents and resistance to surface fouling as compared to the current standard electrode materials, e.g. metal and sp2 carbon. The goal of this proposal is to develop a highly multiplexed UNCD microarray technology for simultaneous monitoring of multiple classes of analytes, especially with very low sample volumes. The specific aims of this proposal are to: (i) demonstrate microelectrode electrochemical behavior (i.e. higher S/N ratio) of a 3 3 UNCD microarray using cyclic voltammetry (ii) demonstrate model analyte detection selected from three major class of analytes viz. toxic metals, endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) and endotoxins on a modified UNCD microarray and (iii) demonstrate the unique advantages of multiplexed UNCD microarrays by measuring all three model analytes (i.e. lead, estradiol and lipopolysaccharide) in simple bio fluids (e.g. serum), which is an important step towards simultaneous multi-analyte detection. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, the microarrays will be used to analyze solutions of these model analytes at or near clinically- relevant concentrations (lt100 ppb) in saline solution. The proposed microarray chemical sensor could potentially be applied to the simultaneous analysis of solutions of heavy metals, EDCs, insecticides, toxins and many other important chemicals in clinical samples. If this project is successful, it will address several key NIEHS mission goals, specifically: portability, enhanced detection sensitivity for clinically relevant analytes and versatility to allow the detection platfrm a widest range of possible analytes. The portability is readily achievable because of multiplexed UNCD microarrays can be fabricated in less than 1mm 1mm footprint. This tiny footprint also enhances sensitivity by orders of magnitude due to their intrinsically low backgrounds currents and UNCD's unique surface chemistry. Finally, UNCD electrode surfaces modified with SAMs, enzymes, antibodies and oligonucleotide probes can detect a wider range of chemical analytes than any other electrode material. These superlative sensing capabilities have significant commercial implications. Based on a letter of support from a leading nanoArray company, the expected annual sales for this product would be at least 50 million and would be expected to exceed this number many-fold over the broader clinical sensor market which is at least 10.9 billion based on a recent market survey. Also, a greater understanding of selective sensing would enable alternative applications for the technology, including: low-cost, chronic, in vivo sensors for neurotransmitters, alcohol, metabolites and disease biomarkers. PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: This project will develop a microarraysensor technology using ultrananocrystalline diamond electrodes to further advance personal biomonitoring. Its versatility, sensitivity, specificity and reliability are ideally suited for measurement of multipl classes of chemicals.


Patent
Advanced Diamond Technologies, Inc | Date: 2016-05-27

The present invention relates to an apparatus for the production of ozone from water comprising at least one cell, consisting of an anode, a cathode and an interposed cation-conducting membrane, wherein the membrane conductively connects the anode and the cathode while forming flow channels for water that are separated from one another as anode and cathode chambers and wherein the flow channels are configured to allow for the recirculation of the water flow within the chambers. The present invention further relates to an electrochemical method and apparatus for producing ozone or dissolved ozone in water in high concentrations by mean of recirculation of water between at least one chamber and at least one water tank.


Patent
Advanced Diamond Technologies, Inc | Date: 2016-05-27

A novel composite diamond film comprising of a relatively thick layer of UNCD (Ultrananocrystalline Diamond) with a Youngs modulus of less than 900 GPa and an underlying relatively thin MCD (microcrystalline diamond) layer with a Youngs modulus of greater than 900 GPa, has been shown to exhibit superior delamination resistance under extreme shear stress. It is hypothesized that this improvement is due to a combination of stress relief by the composite film with a slightly softer UNCD layer, a disruption of the fracture mechanism through the composite layer(s), and the near ideal chemical and thermal expansion coefficient match between the two diamond layers. The combination of a thick but softer underlying UNCD layer with a thin but harder overlying MCD layer provides an excellent compromise between the low deposition cost and smoothness of UNCD with the extreme hardness and unparalleled chemical, electrochemical and immunological inertness of even a thin layer of MCD. The MCD layers roughness is minimized and its adhesion maximized by the use of a thin layer of MCD and its deposition on the smooth surface of the chemically nearly identical underlying UNCD layer. The composite film can be applied to any application currently utilizing a diamond or a similar hard film, including cutting tools, abrasive surfaces, electrochemistry, biomedical applications such as human implants or thermally conductive films and the like, requiring superior durability, chemical resistance and/or immunological inertness.


A method of fabrication, a device structure and a submount comprising high thermal conductivity (HTC) diamond on a HTC metal substrate, for thermal dissipation, are disclosed. The surface roughness of the diamond layer is controlled by depositing diamond on a sacrificial substrate, such as a polished silicon wafer, having a specific surface roughness. Following deposition of the diamond layer, an adhesion layer, e.g. comprising a refractory metal, such as tantalum, and at least one layer of HTC metal is provided. The HTC metal substrate is preferably copper or silver, and may be provided by electroforming metal onto a thin sputtered base layer, and optionally bonding another metal layer. The electrically non-conductive diamond layer has a smooth exposed surface, preferably 10 nm RMS, suitable for patterning of contact metallization and/or bonding to a semiconductor device. Methods are also disclosed for patterning the diamond on metal substrate to facilitate dicing.


Patent
Advanced Diamond Technologies, Inc | Date: 2015-02-10

A system and method are disclosed for streamlined battlefield direction of remote fire support. An exemplary method includes the steps of designating a target, designating a friendly soldier location, transmitting information about the target and the soldier location to a battlefield computer, determining by the battlefield computer available forms of fire support, formatting the target and soldier information in formats compatible with available forms of fire support, selecting at least one of the forms of fire support and transmitting the formatted target and soldier information to the selected form or fire support to call in a strike on the target.


The invention describes a method of ozone titration sensing which utilizes an ozone addition to a target solution, detection of ozone using an Oxidation-Reduction Potential (ORP) electrode or an Ultraviolet (UV) absorption photodiode or other means to detect ozone and the determination of the relative concentration of organics or pathogens subject to ozone oxidation which are present in the target solution. The inventive sensing method can be usefully employed to determine the relative concentration of pathogens such as viruses, bacteria and/or parasites that are readily oxidizable by ozone in aqueous solutions. The inventive sensing method may be used to control an ozone (or other oxidizing or disinfecting) compound dispensing system to optimize the dosage of ozone (or other disinfecting compound) necessary to produce a desired kill ratio or to generate a desired residual of ozone concentration in an aqueous solution after pathogen disinfection.

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