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Romeoville, IL, United States

Advanced Diamond Technologies, Inc | Date: 2014-07-16

An interchangeable cumberbund with integrated wiring to allow for connecting a variety of electronic devices for an intended purpose or mission and exchanging a configured garment for another. The reconfigurable cumberbund allows for multiple quick-disconnect cable harnesses to be weaved into the cumberbund which enables rapid and convenient removal of hardware that incorporates all I/O to a computer. The reconfigurable cumberbund connected to a wearable tactical vest containing a mobile ultra-rugged personal computer is the essential combination that allows hands-free use by the user.

Conductive diamond micro-electrode sensors and sensor arrays are disclosed for in vivo chemical sensing. Also provided is a method of fabrication of individual sensors and sensor arrays. Reliable, sensitive and selective chemical micro-sensors may be constructed for real-time, continuous monitoring of neurotransmitters and neuro-active substances in vivo. Each sensor comprises a conductive microwire, having a distal end comprising a tip, coated with nanocrystalline or ultrananocrystalline conductive diamond, and an overlying insulating layer. Active sensor areas of the conductive diamond layer are defined by openings in the insulating layer at the distal end. Multiple sensor areas may be defined by a 2 or 3 dimensional pattern of openings near the tip. This structure limits interference from surrounding areas for improved signal to noise ratio, sensitivity and selectivity. Using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry and high speed multiplexers, multiple sensors can be arrayed to provide 3-D spatial, and near real-time monitoring.

Agency: Department of Health and Human Services | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 249.92K | Year: 2013

DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): There is an acute need for the development of a new class of selective and sensitive portable analytical sensors to enable reliable monitoring of multiple classes of chemical analytes in complex biomatrices. Current preferred methods for determining the concentration of analytes are spectroscopy and voltammetry. We propose the development of electrochemical microarray sensors using boron-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) that promise superior sensitivity and specificity, fast response time, low background currents and resistance to surface fouling as compared to the current standard electrode materials, e.g. metal and sp2 carbon. The goal of this proposal is to develop a highly multiplexed UNCD microarray technology for simultaneous monitoring of multiple classes of analytes, especially with very low sample volumes. The specific aims of this proposal are to: (i) demonstrate microelectrode electrochemical behavior (i.e. higher S/N ratio) of a 3 3 UNCD microarray using cyclic voltammetry (ii) demonstrate model analyte detection selected from three major class of analytes viz. toxic metals, endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) and endotoxins on a modified UNCD microarray and (iii) demonstrate the unique advantages of multiplexed UNCD microarrays by measuring all three model analytes (i.e. lead, estradiol and lipopolysaccharide) in simple bio fluids (e.g. serum), which is an important step towards simultaneous multi-analyte detection. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, the microarrays will be used to analyze solutions of these model analytes at or near clinically- relevant concentrations (lt100 ppb) in saline solution. The proposed microarray chemical sensor could potentially be applied to the simultaneous analysis of solutions of heavy metals, EDCs, insecticides, toxins and many other important chemicals in clinical samples. If this project is successful, it will address several key NIEHS mission goals, specifically: portability, enhanced detection sensitivity for clinically relevant analytes and versatility to allow the detection platfrm a widest range of possible analytes. The portability is readily achievable because of multiplexed UNCD microarrays can be fabricated in less than 1mm 1mm footprint. This tiny footprint also enhances sensitivity by orders of magnitude due to their intrinsically low backgrounds currents and UNCD's unique surface chemistry. Finally, UNCD electrode surfaces modified with SAMs, enzymes, antibodies and oligonucleotide probes can detect a wider range of chemical analytes than any other electrode material. These superlative sensing capabilities have significant commercial implications. Based on a letter of support from a leading nanoArray company, the expected annual sales for this product would be at least 50 million and would be expected to exceed this number many-fold over the broader clinical sensor market which is at least 10.9 billion based on a recent market survey. Also, a greater understanding of selective sensing would enable alternative applications for the technology, including: low-cost, chronic, in vivo sensors for neurotransmitters, alcohol, metabolites and disease biomarkers. PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: This project will develop a microarraysensor technology using ultrananocrystalline diamond electrodes to further advance personal biomonitoring. Its versatility, sensitivity, specificity and reliability are ideally suited for measurement of multipl classes of chemicals.

A method of fabrication, a device structure and a submount comprising high thermal conductivity (HTC) diamond on a HTC metal substrate, for thermal dissipation, are disclosed. The surface roughness of the diamond layer is controlled by depositing diamond on a sacrificial substrate, such as a polished silicon wafer, having a specific surface roughness. Following deposition of the diamond layer, an adhesion layer, e.g. comprising a refractory metal, such as tantalum, and at least one layer of HTC metal is provided. The HTC metal substrate is preferably copper or silver, and may be provided by electroforming metal onto a thin sputtered base layer, and optionally bonding another metal layer. The electrically non-conductive diamond layer has a smooth exposed surface, preferably 10 nm RMS, suitable for patterning of contact metallization and/or bonding to a semiconductor device. Methods are also disclosed for patterning the diamond on metal substrate to facilitate dicing.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: | Award Amount: 985.93K | Year: 2011

This Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase II project will employ the boron-doped ultrananocyrstalline diamond (BD-UNCD) electrodes developed during the Phase I project to fabricate and characterize electrochemical cells and systems for the on-site generation (OSG) of advanced oxidants (chlorine-based mixed oxidants - hydrogen peroxide combined with hypochlorite - and sodium persulfate) and apply them to targeted water treatment applications. The primary research objectives are to determine the optimal conditions to generate oxidants and to establish the projected lifetime of the electrodes. BD-UNCD cells will demonstrate higher rates of oxidant production at lower costs and with greater energy efficiency than competing electrodes due to higher current densities and over-potentials for O2 and H2 evolution at the anode and cathode. The known difficulties with existing approaches of disinfection, such as the inadequate destruction of pathogens (Cryptosporidium), ineffective operation below 10°C, generation of large quantities of O2 and H2, and electrode fouling are expected to be mitigated substantially through use of BD-UNCD electrodes. Sodium persulfate (SPS) has been used as a highly effective oxidant capable of oxidative destruction of recalcitrant organics such as in oil-contaminated sea water. BD-UNCD technology will dramatically reduce the cost and increase flexibility of OSG water treatment using SPS.

The broader impact/commercial potential of this project is the development of a safer, cheaper, more environmentally friendly technology to generate green oxidants using diamond electrodes that can be used for a number of water treatment applications including purification, disinfection, and remediation. The market for chlorine-based disinfection systems alone is $20 billion with a correspondingly large impact on human health and national security issues associated with transporting vast quantities of hazardous materials. Overcoming technical barriers that have prevented diamond from being used for oxidant generation will require advances in the synthesis and large-scale manufacturing of diamond thin films that will impact other applications of this material. The electrochemistry of diamond is not well understood in the conditions needed for OSG. Better understanding of these reactions and the technological trade-offs between cell design and electrode geometry will impact related applications including the development of compact systems for third-world potable water generation, small scale desalination, the energy efficient electrochemical synthesis of new materials and other point-of-use applications of advanced oxidants. Large scale on-site generation of persulfates will enable highly effective treatment of refractory organics found in oil contaminated sea water and waste water associated with bitumen refining.

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