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Foerster C.,Advanced Center for Chronic Diseases iS | Figueroa G.,University of Chile | Evers E.,National Institute for Public Health and the Environment
British Food Journal | Year: 2015

Purpose – A quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) was developed to estimate the probability of getting listeriosis as a consequence of chicken and beef consumption in Chile. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach – As a first step a deterministic retail-to-home model was constructed for the Chilean susceptible population, including storage, cross-contamination and cooking. Next, two probabilisticmodels were developed, including variability and/or the uncertainty of some of the parameters. The probabilistic models were analyzed by Monte Carlo simulations with 100,000 iterations. Findings – Of the total susceptible population used in the model (2.81 million people), the deterministic model estimated 11 and two listeriosis cases because of beef and poultry consumption, respectively and the variability model estimated a mean of 322 and 7,546 cases for beef and poultry consumption, respectively. The uncertainty analysis showed large ranges, with realistic estimates made with an initial concentration of Listeria monocytogenes of 0.04-1 CFU/g and a dose-response parameter r ranging from 10-14 to 10-10. Research limitations/implications – The lack of information was the major limitation of the model, so the generation of it has to be a priority in Chile for developing less uncertain risk assessments in the future. Practical implications – Raw animal products can be the cause of listeriosis cases if they are not stored, cooked and/or handled properly. Consumer education seems to be an essential factor for disease prevention. Originality/value – This is the first QMRA made in Chile, and also the first study of listeriosis in non-processed meat. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Source

Vives A.,University of Santiago de Chile | Vives A.,University Pompeu Fabra | Vives A.,Center for Sustainable Urban Development | Vives A.,Advanced Center for Chronic Diseases iS | And 6 more authors.
Gaceta Sanitaria | Year: 2015

Objective: This study examines the psychometric properties of the revised Employment Precariousness Scale (EPRES-2010) in a context of economic crisis and growing unemployment. Methods: Data correspond to salaried workers with a contract (n = 4,750) from the second Psychosocial Work Environment Survey (Spain, 2010). Analyses included acceptability, scale score distributions, Cronbach's alpha coefficient and exploratory factor analysis. Results: Response rates were 80% or above, scores were widely distributed with reductions in floor effects for temporariness among permanent workers and for vulnerability. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were 0.70 or above; exploratory factor analysis confirmed the theoretical allocation of 21 out of 22 items. Conclusion: The revised version of the EPRES demonstrated good metric properties and improved sensitivity to worker vulnerability and employment instability among permanent workers. Furthermore, it was sensitive to increased levels of precariousness in some dimensions despite decreases in others, demonstrating responsiveness to the context of the economic crisis affecting the Spanish labour market. © 2015 SESPAS. Source

Vera C.,University of Chile | Tapia V.,University of Chile | Vega M.,University of Chile | Romero C.,University of Chile | Romero C.,Advanced Center for Chronic Diseases iS
Journal of Ovarian Research | Year: 2014

In normal ovarian function a controlled angiogenesis is essential. Several growth factors are involved in this process, such as the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and nerve growth factor (NGF). The angiogenesis process in the normal ovary is a tightly controlled process that occurs in each ovarian cycle. Also, angiogenesis is critical for ovarian cancer development and it is responsible for tumor spread, metastasis and its peritoneal dissemination. Ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer death in women and it is distinguished as the most lethal gynecologic cancer. In recent years angiogenesis has been given considerable attention in order to identify targets for developing effective anti-tumor therapies. Several molecules have been reported to promote angiogenesis, such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and its receptors, the angiopoietin/Tie ligand/receptor system and fibroblast growth factor (FGF). Primarily, VEGF has been identified to play key roles in driving angiogenesis. The above-mentioned molecules are candidate drug targets. Used in combination with other treatments, anti-angiogenic therapies have managed to reduce disease progression. The present review is focused in NGF and its high affinity receptor tyrosine kinase A (TRKA). The expression of VEGF, proliferation and the angiogenesis process in ovarian cancer is importantly induced by NGF, among other molecules. © 2014 Vera et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Adura C.,University of Chile | Adura C.,University of Santiago de Chile | Guzman F.,Pontifical Catholic University of Valparaiso | Alvarez-Lueje A.,University of Chile | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the Chilean Chemical Society | Year: 2015

In this work, we report a fast and accessible method for quantification of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) in solutions of gold nanorods (GNRs) by bromophenol blue (BPB) ion-paring formation and spectrophotometric detection. The ion-par method used to quantify CTAB exhibited adequate figures of merit and was applied to the quantification of CTAB present in solutions of GNRs-CTAB and in GNRs-CLPFFD samples obtained by the seed growth method. This type of methodology could be extensive to others surfactants employed for the synthesis of nanoparticles. In addition, this method allows screening CTAB in GNRs samples and consequently would help to know if CTAB concentration is lower than an acceptable cut-off for cell viability analysis. Source

Sanhueza C.,University of Santiago de Chile | Wehinger S.,University of Talca | Castillo Bennett J.,Institute of Biomedical science ICBM | Castillo Bennett J.,Advanced Center for Chronic Diseases iS | And 6 more authors.
Molecular Cancer | Year: 2015

Survivin, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis family of proteins (IAPs) that controls cell division, apoptosis, metastasis and angiogenesis, is overexpressed in essentially all human cancers. As a consequence, the gene/protein is considered an attractive target for cancer treatment. Here, we discuss recent findings related to the regulation of survivin expression and its role in angiogenesis, particularly in the context of hypoxia. We propose a novel role for survivin in cancer, whereby expression of the protein in tumor cells promotes VEGF synthesis, secretion and angiogenesis. Mechanistically, we propose the existence of a positive feed-back loop involving PI3-kinase/Akt activation and enhanced β-Catenin-TCF/LEF-dependent VEGF expression followed by secretion. Finally, we elaborate on the possibility that this mechanism operating in cancer cells may contribute to enhanced tumor vascularization by vasculogenic mimicry together with conventional angiogenesis. © 2015 Sanhueza et al. Source

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