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Altieri F.,University of Naples Federico II | Di Stadio C.S.,University of Naples Federico II | Federico A.,University of Naples Federico II | Miselli G.,University of Naples Federico II | And 4 more authors.
Oncotarget | Year: 2017

The gastrokine 1 (GKN1) protein is important for maintaining the physiological function of the gastric mucosa. GKN1 is down-regulated in gastric tumor tissues and derived cell lines and its over-expression in gastric cancer cells induces apoptosis, suggesting a possible role for the protein as a tumor suppressor. However, the mechanism by which GKN1 is inactivated in gastric cancer remains unknown. Here, we investigated the causes of GKN1 silencing to determine if epigenetic mechanisms such as histonic modification could contribute to its down-regulation. To this end, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays for the trimethylation of histone 3 at lysine 9 (H3K9triMe) and its specific histone-lysine N-methyltransferase (SUV39H1) were performed on biopsies of normal and cancerous human gastric tissues. GKN1 down-regulation in gastric cancer tissues was shown to be associated with high levels of H3K9triMe and with the recruitment of SUV39H1 to the GKN1 promoter, suggesting the presence of an epigenetic transcriptional complex that negatively regulates GKN1 expression in gastric tumors. The inhibition of histone deacetylases with trichostatin A was also shown to increase GKN1 mRNA levels. Collectively, our results indicate that complex epigenetic machinery regulates GKN1 expression at the transcriptional level, and likely at the translational level.


Migliaccio N.,University of Naples Federico II | Martucci N.M.,University of Naples Federico II | Ruggiero I.,University of Naples Federico II | Sanges C.,Research Technology GmbH | And 5 more authors.
Amino Acids | Year: 2016

The link between eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1A (eEF1A) and signal transduction pathways through the regulatory mechanism of phosphorylation has never been considered. In this review, we focus on the different kinases that recognize the Ser and Thr residues of the eEF1A1 and eEF1A2 isoforms and regulate their involvement in different cellular processes like cell survival and apoptosis. In this context, polyamines seem to play a role in the regulation of the translation elongation process by modulating the Ser/Thr kinases involved in the phosphorylation of translation elongation factors. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Wien.


Corbo C.,Houston Methodist Research Institute | Molinaro R.,Houston Methodist Research Institute | Parodi A.,Houston Methodist Research Institute | Toledano Furman N.E.,Houston Methodist Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Nanomedicine | Year: 2016

In a perfect sequence of events, nanoparticles (NPs) are injected into the bloodstream where they circulate until they reach the target tissue. The ligand on the NP surface recognizes its specific receptor expressed on the target tissue and the drug is released in a controlled manner. However, once injected in a physiological environment, NPs interact with biological components and are surrounded by a protein corona (PC). This can trigger an immune response and affect NP toxicity and targeting capabilities. In this review, we provide a survey of recent findings on the NP-PC interactions and discuss how the PC can be used to modulate both cytotoxicity and the immune response as well as to improve the efficacy of targeted delivery of nanocarriers. © 2016 Future Medicine Ltd.


Altieri F.,University of Naples Federico II | Di Stadio C.S.,University of Naples Federico II | Severino V.,The Second University of Naples | Severino V.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | And 12 more authors.
Biochimie | Year: 2014

Gastrokine 1 (GKN1) is a stomach-specific protein expressed in normal gastric tissue but absent in gastric cancer. GKN1 plays a major role in maintaining gastric mucosa integrity and is characterized by the presence of a BRICHOS domain consisting of about 100 amino acids also found in several unrelated proteins associated with major human diseases like BRI2, related to familial British and Danish dementia and surfactant protein C (SP-C), associated with respiratory distress syndrome. It was reported that recombinant BRICHOS domains from BRI2 and SP-C precursor (proSP-C) prevent fibrils formation of amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ), that is the major component of extracellular amyloid deposits in Alzheimer's disease. Here we investigated on the interaction between human recombinant GKN1 (rGKN1) and Aβ peptide (1-40) that derives from the partial hydrolysis of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). GKN1 prevented amyloid aggregation and fibrils formation by inhibiting Aβ(1-40) polymerization, as evaluated by SDS-PAGE, thioflavin-T binding assay and gel filtration experiments. Mass spectrometry showed the formation of a prevailing 1:1 complex between GKN1 and Aβ(1-40). SPR analysis of GKN1/Aβ interaction led to calculate a dissociation constant (KD) of 34 μM. Besides its interaction with Aβ(1-40), GKN1 showed also to interact with APP as evaluated by confocal microscopy and Ni-NTA pull-down. Data strongly suggest that GKN1 has anti-amyloidogenic properties thus functioning as a chaperone directed against unfolded segments and with the ability to recognize amyloidogenic polypeptides and prevent their aggregation. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Sanges C.,University of Naples Federico II | Sanges C.,University of Würzburg | Scheuermann C.,University of Würzburg | Zahedi R.P.,Leibniz Institute for Analytical Sciences | And 11 more authors.
Cell Death and Disease | Year: 2012

We identified eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1A (eEF1A) Raf-mediated phosphorylation sites and defined their role in the regulation of eEF1A half-life and of apoptosis of human cancer cells. Mass spectrometry identified in vitro S21 and T88 as phosphorylation sites mediated by B-Raf but not C-Raf on eEF1A1 whereas S21 was phosphorylated on eEF1A2 by both B- and C-Raf. Interestingly, S21 belongs to the first eEF1A GTP/GDP-binding consensus sequence. Phosphorylation of S21 was strongly enhanced when both eEF1A isoforms were preincubated prior the assay with C-Raf, suggesting that the eEF1A isoforms can heterodimerize thus increasing the accessibility of S21 to the phosphate. Overexpression of eEF1A1 in COS 7 cells confirmed the phosphorylation of T88 also in vivo. Compared with wt, in COS 7 cells overexpressed phosphodeficient (A) and phospho-mimicking (D) mutants of eEF1A1 (S21A/D and T88A/D) and of eEF1A2 (S21A/D), resulted less stable and more rapidly proteasome degraded. Transfection of S21 A/D eEF1A mutants in H1355 cells increased apoptosis in comparison with the wt isoforms. It indicates that the blockage of S21 interferes with or even supports C-Raf induced apoptosis rather than cell survival. Raf-mediated regulation of this site could be a crucial mechanism involved in the functional switching of eEF1A between its role in protein biosynthesis and its participation in other cellular processes. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.


Song M.,Cornell University | Giza J.,Cornell University | Proenca C.C.,Novartis | Jing D.,Cornell University | And 16 more authors.
Developmental Cell | Year: 2015

Recent studies in humans and in genetic mouse models have identified Slit- and NTRK-like family (Slitrks) as candidate genes for neuropsychiatric disorders. All Slitrk isotypes are highly expressed in the CNS, where they mediate neurite outgrowth, synaptogenesis, and neuronal survival. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these functions are not known. Here, we report that Slitrk5 modulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-dependent biological responses through direct interaction with TrkB receptors. Under basal conditions, Slitrk5 interacts primarily with a transsynaptic binding partner, protein tyrosine phosphatase δ (PTPδ); however, upon BDNF stimulation, Slitrk5 shifts to cis-interactions with TrkB. In the absence of Slitrk5, TrkB has a reduced rate of ligand-dependent recycling and altered responsiveness to BDNF treatment. Structured illumination microscopy revealed that Slitrk5 mediates optimal targeting of TrkB receptors to Rab11-positive recycling endosomes through recruitment of a Rab11 effector protein, Rab11-FIP3. Thus, Slitrk5 acts as a TrkB co-receptor that mediates its BDNF-dependent trafficking and signaling. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.


PubMed | Advanced Biotechnology Incubator
Type: | Journal: Proteomics. Clinical applications | Year: 2016

About one million people/year develop colorectal cancer (CRC) and approximately half of them die. The extent of the disease (i.e. local invasion at the time of diagnosis) is a key prognostic factor. The 5-year survival rate is almost 90% in the case of delimited CRC and 10% in the case of metastasized CRC. Hence, one of the great challenges in the battle against CRC is to improve early diagnosis strategies. Large-scale proteomic approaches are widely used in cancer research to search for novel biomarkers. Such biomarkers can help in improving the accuracy of the diagnosis and in the optimization of personalized therapy. Herein, we provide an overview of studies published in the last 5 years on CRC that led to the identification of protein biomarkers suitable for clinical application by using proteomic approaches. We discussed these findings according to biomarker application, including also the role of protein phosphorylation and cancer stem cells in biomarker discovery. Our review provides a cross section of scientific approaches and can furnish suggestions for future experimental strategies to be used as reference by scientists, clinicians and researchers interested in proteomics for biomarker discovery. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Shandong University, New York University, Cornell University, University of Helsinki and 5 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Developmental cell | Year: 2015

Recent studies in humans and in genetic mouse models have identified Slit- and NTRK-like family (Slitrks) as candidate genes for neuropsychiatric disorders. All Slitrk isotypes are highly expressed in the CNS, where they mediate neurite outgrowth, synaptogenesis, and neuronal survival. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these functions are not known. Here, we report that Slitrk5 modulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-dependent biological responses through direct interaction with TrkB receptors. Under basal conditions, Slitrk5 interacts primarily with a transsynaptic binding partner, protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP); however, upon BDNF stimulation, Slitrk5 shifts to cis-interactions with TrkB. In the absence of Slitrk5, TrkB has a reduced rate of ligand-dependent recycling and altered responsiveness to BDNF treatment. Structured illumination microscopy revealed that Slitrk5 mediates optimal targeting of TrkB receptors to Rab11-positive recycling endosomes through recruitment of a Rab11 effector protein, Rab11-FIP3. Thus, Slitrk5 acts as a TrkB co-receptor that mediates its BDNF-dependent trafficking and signaling.


PubMed | Houston Methodist Research Institute and Advanced Biotechnology Incubator
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nanomedicine (London, England) | Year: 2015

In a perfect sequence of events, nanoparticles (NPs) are injected into the bloodstream where they circulate until they reach the target tissue. The ligand on the NP surface recognizes its specific receptor expressed on the target tissue and the drug is released in a controlled manner. However, once injected in a physiological environment, NPs interact with biological components and are surrounded by a protein corona (PC). This can trigger an immune response and affect NP toxicity and targeting capabilities. In this review, we provide a survey of recent findings on the NP-PC interactions and discuss how the PC can be used to modulate both cytotoxicity and the immune response as well as to improve the efficacy of targeted delivery of nanocarriers.


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