Kensington, MD, United States
Kensington, MD, United States

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PubMed | Advanced Bioscience Laboratories, Guys And St Thomas Nhs Foundation Trust, Alpha StatConsult LLC, Imperial College London and 4 more.
Type: | Journal: AIDS research and human retroviruses | Year: 2016

The ex vivo challenge assay is being increasingly used as an efficacy endpoint during early human clinical trials of HIV prevention treatments. There is no standard methodology for the ex vivo challenge assay although the use of different data collection methods and analytical parameters may impact results and reduce the comparability of findings between trials. In this analysis we describe the impact of data imputation methods, kit type, testing schedule and tissue type on variability, statistical power and ex vivo HIV growth kinetics. Data were p24 antigen (pg/mL) measurements collected from clinical trials of candidate microbicides where rectal (n=502), cervical (n=88) and vaginal (n=110) tissues were challenged with HIV-1BaL ex vivo. Imputation of missing data using a non-linear mixed effect model was found to provide an improved fit compared to imputation using half the limit of detection. The rectal virus growth period was found to be earlier and of a relatively shorter duration than the growth period for cervical and vaginal tissue types. On average, only four rectal tissue challenge assays in each treatment and control group would be needed to find a one log difference in p24 to be significant (alpha = 0.05) but a larger sample size was predicted to be needed for either cervical (n=21) or vaginal (n=10) tissue comparisons. Overall, the results indicated that improvements could be made in the design and analysis of the ex vivo challenge assay to provide a more standardized and powerful assay to compare efficacy of microbicide products.


PubMed | Novartis, Advanced Bioscience Laboratories, Karolinska Institutet, Duke Human Vaccine Institute and 12 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nature medicine | Year: 2016

A recombinant vaccine containing Aventis Pasteurs canarypox vector (ALVAC)-HIV and gp120 alum decreased the risk of HIV acquisition in the RV144 vaccine trial. The substitution of alum with the more immunogenic MF59 adjuvant is under consideration for the next efficacy human trial. We found here that an ALVAC-simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and gp120 alum (ALVAC-SIV + gp120) equivalent vaccine, but not an ALVAC-SIV + gp120 MF59 vaccine, was efficacious in delaying the onset of SIVmac251 in rhesus macaques, despite the higher immunogenicity of the latter adjuvant. Vaccine efficacy was associated with alum-induced, but not with MF59-induced, envelope (Env)-dependent mucosal innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) that produce interleukin (IL)-17, as well as with mucosal IgG to the gp120 variable region 2 (V2) and the expression of 12 genes, ten of which are part of the RAS pathway. The association between RAS activation and vaccine efficacy was also observed in an independent efficacious SIV-vaccine approach. Whether RAS activation, mucosal ILCs and antibodies to V2 are also important hallmarks of HIV-vaccine efficacy in humans will require further studies.


Lagenaur L.A.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Lagenaur L.A.,Osel, Inc. | Sanders-Beer B.E.,BIOQUAL | Brichacek B.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | And 7 more authors.
Mucosal Immunology | Year: 2011

Most human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmissions in women occur through the cervicovaginal mucosa, which is coated by a bacterial biofilm including Lactobacillus. This commensal bacterium has a role in maintaining a healthy mucosa and can be genetically engineered to produce antiviral peptides. Here, we report a 63% reduction in transmission of a chimeric simian/HIV (SHIV SF162P3) after repeated vaginal challenges of macaques treated with Lactobacillus jensenii expressing the HIV-1 entry inhibitor cyanovirin-N. Furthermore, peak viral loads in colonized macaques with breakthrough infection were reduced sixfold. Colonization and prolonged antiviral protein secretion by the genetically engineered lactobacilli did not cause any increase in proinflammatory markers. These findings lay the foundation for an accessible and durable approach to reduce heterosexual transmission of HIV in women, which is coitally independent, inexpensive, and enhances the natural protective effects of the vaginal microflora.


Gordon S.N.,NCI Inc | Cecchinato V.,NCI Inc | Andresen V.,NCI Inc | Heraud J.-M.,World Health Organization | And 15 more authors.
Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2011

The licensed smallpox vaccine, ACAM2000, is a cell culture derivative of Dryvax. Both ACAM2000 and Dryvax are administered by skin scarification and can cause progressive vaccinia, with skin lesions that disseminate to distal sites. We have investigated the immunologic basis of the containment of vaccinia in the skin with the goal to identify safer vaccines for smallpox. Macaques were depleted systemically of T or B cells and vaccinated with either Dryvax or an attenuated vaccinia vaccine, LC16m8. B cell depletion did not affect the size of skin lesions induced by either vaccine. However, while depletion of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells had no adverse effects on LC16m8-vaccinated animals, it caused progressive vaccinia in macaques immunized with Dryvax. As both Dryvax and LC16m8 vaccines protect healthy macaques from a lethal monkeypox intravenous challenge, our data identify LC16m8 as a safer and effective alternative to ACAM2000 and Dryvax vaccines for immunocompromised individuals.


Bialuk I.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Bialuk I.,Medical University of Bialystok | Whitney S.,Advanced BioScience Laboratories | Andresen V.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | And 14 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2011

The role of antibodies directed against the hyper variable envelope region V1 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), has not been thoroughly studied. We show that a vaccine able to elicit strain-specific non-neutralizing antibodies to this region of gp120 is associated with control of highly pathogenic chimeric SHIV 89.6P replication in rhesus macaques. The vaccinated animal that had the highest titers of antibodies to the amino terminus portion of V1, prior to challenge, had secondary antibody responses that mediated cell killing by antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), as early as 2 weeks after infection and inhibited viral replication by antibody-dependent cell-mediated virus inhibition (ADCVI), by 4 weeks after infection. There was a significant inverse correlation between virus level and binding antibody titers to the envelope protein, (R = -0.83, p = 0.015), and ADCVI (R = -0.84 p = 0.044). Genotyping of plasma virus demonstrated in vivo selection of three SHIV 89.6P variants with changes in potential N-linked glycosylation sites in V1. We found a significant inverse correlation between virus levels and titers of antibodies that mediated ADCVI against all the identified V1 virus variants. A significant inverse correlation was also found between neutralizing antibody titers to SHIV89.6 and virus levels (R = -0.72 p = 0.0050). However, passive inoculation of purified immunoglobulin from animal M316, the macaque that best controlled virus, to a naïve macaque, resulted in a low serum neutralizing antibodies and low ADCVI activity that failed to protect from SHIV 89.6P challenge. Collectively, while our data suggest that anti-envelope antibodies with neutralizing and non-neutralizing Fc(R-dependent activities may be important in the control of SHIV replication, they also demonstrate that low levels of these antibodies alone are not sufficient to protect from infection.


Patterson L.J.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Kuate S.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Daltabuit-Test M.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Li Q.,University of Minnesota | And 8 more authors.
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology | Year: 2012

Although priming with replicating adenovirus type 5 host range mutant (Ad5hr)-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) recombinants, followed by HIV/SIV envelope boosting, has proven highly immunogenic, resulting in protection from SIV/simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) challenges, Ad5hr recombinant distribution, replication, and persistence have not been examined comprehensively in nonhuman primates. We utilized Ad5hr-green fluorescent protein and Ad5hr-SIV recombinants to track biodistribution and immunogenicity following mucosal priming of rhesus macaques by the intranasal/intratracheal, sublingual, vaginal, or rectal route. Ad recombinants administered by all routes initially targeted macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and rectal tissue, later extending to myeloid dendritic cells in BAL fluid with persistent expression in rectal mucosa 25 weeks after the last Ad immunization. Comparable SIV-specific immunity, including cellular responses, serum binding antibody, and mucosal secretory IgA, was elicited among all groups. The ability of the vector to replicate in multiple mucosal sites irrespective of delivery route, together with the targeting of macrophages and professional antigen-presenting cells, which provide potent immunogenicity at localized sites of virus entry, warrants continued use of replicating Ad vectors. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Microbiology.


Fouts T.R.,Profectus Biosciences, Inc. | Bagley K.,Profectus Biosciences, Inc. | Prado I.J.,Profectus Biosciences, Inc. | Bobb K.L.,Profectus Biosciences, Inc. | And 18 more authors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2015

A guiding principle for HIV vaccine design has been that cellular and humoral immunity work together to provide the strongest degree of efficacy. However, three efficacy trials of Ad5-vectored HIV vaccines showed no protection. Transmission was increased in two of the trials, suggesting that this vaccine strategy elicited CD4+ T-cell responses that provide more targets for infection, attenuating protection or increasing transmission. The degree to which this problem extends to other HIV vaccine candidates is not known. Here, we show that a gp120-CD4 chimeric subunit protein vaccine (full-length single chain) elicits heterologous protection against simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) or simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) acquisition in three independent rhesus macaque repeated low-dose rectal challenge studies with SHIV162P3 or SIVmac251. Protection against acquisition was observed with multiple formulations and challenges. In each study, protection correlated with antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity specific for CD4-induced epitopes, provided that the concurrent antivaccine T-cell responses were minimal. Protection was lost in instances when T-cell responses were high or when the requisite antibody titers had declined. Our studies suggest that balance between a protective antibody response and antigen-specific T-cell activation is the critical element to vaccine-mediated protection against HIV. Achieving and sustaining such a balance, while enhancing antibody durability, is the major challenge for HIV vaccine development, regardless of the immunogen or vaccine formulation.

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