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Srivastava P.,Advance Institute of Biotech and Paramedical science | Malviya R.,Crossing tech
Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources | Year: 2011

Plant and their products have always been a source of various drugs and excipients used in pharmaceutical formulations. Pectin, a naturally occurring polysaccharide, has in recent years gained increased importance. The benefits of natural pectin are also appreciated by scientists and consumer due to its biodegradability. Pectin is the methylated ester of polygalacturonic acid and it is commercially extracted from citrus peels and apple pomace under mildly acidic conditions. Pectin is divided into two major groups on the basis of their degree of esterification. The association of pectin chains leads to the formation of the three dimensional networks giving gel formation. Since ages pectin is being used in the formulation of various dosage forms wherein it acts as a promising natural polymer for drug delivery. Pectin possesses several requisite characteristics to be used as polymer in drug development and release kinetics. In the present review we have compiled the major sources, extraction process and properties of pectin. The major fields and areas of its applications as a promising polymer have also been discussed. The pectin, by itself or by its gelling properties, is employed in pharmaceutical industry as a carrier for drug delivery to the gastrointestinal tract, such as matrix tablets, gel beads, film-coated dosage form. This review has also discussed the important chemistry and general properties of pectin, and its gel formation mechanism and properties. Source


Jaiswal S.,Advance Institute of Biotech and Paramedical science | Mishra A.P.,Advance Institute of Biotech and Paramedical science | Srivastava A.,Pranveer Singh Institute of Technology
Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences | Year: 2012

Benzoheterocycles such as benzothiazoles can serve as unique and versatile scaffolds for experimental drug design. Among the all benzohaterocycles, benzothiazole has considerable place in research area especially in synthetic as well as in pharmaceutical chemistry because of its potent and significant pharmacological activities. The small and simple benzothiazole nucleus possesses numerous pharmacological activities like- antitumor, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsant, and antidiabetic activities. Since, a wide range of different reactions are available for synthesizing 2-substituted benzothiazole nucleus and its derivatives by using different type of catalysts but a real need exists for new procedures that support many kinds of structural diversity and various substitution. The present review focuses on the different kind of reactions involved in synthesis as well as cyclisation of benzothiazole nucleus and its derivatives. Source


Sharma P.,Advance Institute of Biotech and Paramedical science | Kapoor A.,Advance Institute of Biotech and Paramedical science | Bhargava S.,Advance Institute of Biotech and Paramedical science
Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences | Year: 2012

Solid dispersions have been known to be one amongst the recent means of improving the dissolution rate by enhancement of solubility, and hence the bioavailability of poorly water soluble drugs. According, to - Chiou and Riegelman Solid dispersions are "The dispersion of one or more active ingredients in an inert carrier or matrix, where the active ingredients could exist in finely crystalline, solubilized or amorphous state."This review is the brief compilation of the solid dispersion as a technique of solubility enhancement in the current consensus. It deals with the mechanism of solubility enhancement, various techniques of solubility enhancement and the methods of formulation of solid dispersion. The implications of a deeper understanding of the dissolution mechanisms have been discussed, with particular emphasis on optimization of manufacturing methods along with type of polymer used. With the recent development in the screening of potential therapeutic agents, the number of poorly water soluble drugs have risen sharply and gained large interest due to the challenges in the oral solubility of the drug which leads to the major cause for which the techniques are meant to be implemented. One amongst such techniques is the formulation of solid dispersion for the solubility enhancement. Source


Prajapati N.,Advance Institute of Biotech and Paramedical science | Srivastava P.,Advance Institute of Biotech and Paramedical science | Bhargava S.,Advance Institute of Biotech and Paramedical science
Current Drug Therapy | Year: 2012

With the present scenario of development of newer drug delivery systems, correspondingly various routes are also being explored for systemic or local drug delivery to the patients. In the same context, nasal drug delivery is serving as a very effective route for the delivery of therapeutically active compounds. In such drug delivery system, drugs having lower absorption rate can be administered with the use of absorption enhancers through thin nasal mucosal layer. Similarly, drug residence time in the nasal cavity can also be increased by using various synthetic and natural polymers. Some mucoadhesive polymers have been reported to serve both of the above functions. The present review deals in depth with, nasal physiology and factors affecting drugs permeability which special reference to biological and pharmaceutical considerations. Structural features and various nasal delivery systems have also been discussed. Furthermore, applications of various natural polymers for the delivery of small organic molecules, antibiotics, proteins, vaccines and DNA through the nasal route have been extensively reviewed. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers. Source


Thakur M.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Thakur M.,Advance Institute of Biotech and Paramedical science | Thakur M.,Dr Hari Singh Gour University | Weng A.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | And 6 more authors.
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2012

Rasayana constitutes a very important class of Ayurvedic herbs, which acts as rejuvenators and tonic. Despite intensive research on evaluating the medicinal basis for the purported medical benefits of Rasayana herbs, still a specific chemical guiding principle for the characterization of these herbs in one single category is unclear. Here we explore the possibility that polysaccharides play a key role in Rasayana properties exhibited by medicinal plants. Further on this could be a possible field for exploration for a common factor present in some of the Ayurvedic herbs. The present review covers a literature spanning from 1956 to 2011. Some translations of traditional Ayurvedic texts dating back to the first century AD have been referred to as well. In our assessment of the present literature and studies carried out it is presupposed that the presence of benevolent plant polysaccharides must be one of the important features symbolizing a common effectiveness in most of the Ayurvedic Rasayana herbs. Of the many plant metabolites polysaccharides have not so far been considered and studied effectively compared to other secondary metabolites like saponins, alkaloids, etc. Although all the results reported until now suggest a major contribution of polysaccharide towards the maintenance of physiological homeostasis, which is the guiding principle of Rasayana therapy. The present review is an attempt to find a connective link between the concept of Rasayana and well-being; and the role of plant polysaccharides. Lack of clinical information on number of polysaccharides showing promise is a limiting factor for a complete understanding. It is also important to carry out a molecular interaction study to understand the behavior of polysaccharides discussed in the present review. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All Rights Reserved. Source

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