Inagaki F.,Japan Agency for Marine - Earth Science and Technology |
Hinrichs K.-U.,University of Bremen |
Kubo Y.,Japan Agency for Marine - Earth Science and Technology |
Bowles M.W.,University of Bremen |
And 50 more authors.
Science | Year: 2015
Microbial life inhabits deeply buried marine sediments, but the extent of this vast ecosystem remains poorly constrained. Here we provide evidence for the existence of microbial communities in ∼40° to 60°C sediment associated with lignite coal beds at ∼1.5 to 2.5 km below the seafloor in the Pacific Ocean off Japan. Microbial methanogenesis was indicated by the isotopic compositions of methane and carbon dioxide, biomarkers, cultivation data, and gas compositions. Concentrations of indigenous microbial cells below 1.5 km ranged from <10 to ∼104 cells cm-3. Peak concentrations occurred in lignite layers, where communities differed markedly from shallower subseafloor communities and instead resembled organotrophic communities in forest soils. This suggests that terrigenous sediments retain indigenous community members tens of millions of years after burial in the seabed.
Lima M.,European Laboratory for Non linear Spectroscopy LENS |
Lima M.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience |
Candelaresi M.,Adrok Ltd. |
Foggi P.,European Laboratory for Non linear Spectroscopy LENS |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Raman Spectroscopy | Year: 2013
We describe the theory, some experimental details and the data analysis procedures of two-dimensional infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy. A brief description of an application of the technique to the study of a dipeptide in solution is also reported. Like multi-dimensional NMR spectroscopy, 2D-IR can provide additional pieces of information hidden in the inhomogenously broadened bands observed in linear IR spectra. In addition, the presence of off-diagonal peaks allows a direct estimate of the couplings between vibrational modes. By means of this technique, making use of ultrashort mid-infrared pulses, exploration of the structure and of the dynamics of molecular systems in the condensed phase and on very short time scales becomes now achievable. The effects of solvent dynamics on Glycine-L-Alanine-Methylamide by 2D-IR are discussed. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Stove G.C.,Adrok Ltd. |
McManus J.,University of St. Andrews |
Robinson M.J.,Adrok Ltd. |
Stove G.D.C.,Adrok Ltd. |
Odella A.,Adrok Ltd.
International Journal of Remote Sensing | Year: 2013
The early use of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and lidar systems from aircraft and space shuttles revealed the ability of the signals to penetrate the ground surface. Atomic dielectric resonance (ADR) technology was developed as an improvement over SAR and ground penetrating radar (GPR) to achieve deeper penetration of the Earth's subsurface through the creation and use of a novel type of coherent beam. When pulsed electromagnetic radio waves pass through a material, they generate measurable responses in terms of energy, frequency, and phase relationships. A deployment of the ADR equipment in a field study of a measured section of Dinantian sediments in a disused quarry at Cults, Fife, Scotland, has confirmed the ability of the method to distinguish the lithologic type and their respective thickness ranging from limestones through sandstones, siltstones, seatearths, and coals. Borehole data were used to corroborate the ADR imaging spectrometer. The signal penetrated more deeply into the ground than the 20 m height of the exposed rock section, and it showed good correlation with records from two nearby boreholes that extend to lower levels. Reliable lithological recognition at ground penetration of more than 90 m had been achieved. ADR was also deployed over deeper borehole sites in the Limestone Coal Formation at Higham and Lathones, Fife, Scotland. Here the signal was shown to penetrate the subsurface to depths of 225 and 580 m, respectively. A subsequent field deployment of ADR at Cousland, Midlothian, Scotland, demonstrated subsurface penetration in the Lower Limestone Formation by ADR to 700 m - as confirmed from nearby boreholes. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.
Stove G.,Adrok Ltd.
Hart's E and P | Year: 2010
The atomic dielectric resonance (ADR) scanner approach has introduced significant change in the oil and gas exploration industry. The ADR scanner identifies hydrocarbons and minerals from the ground surface to depths to 2.4 miles (4 km). It also benefits from being able to quantify oil or gas reserves, gives an indication of the mix of sand and water, maps geological structures to a higher resolution, and carries out scans of large remote areas. It gives absolute answers that are not subject to interpretation by geologists after been trained. Output data from the scanner provide results that are easy to understand and give a deterministic answer and can be imported into earth model databases including Petrel, Petris, and Kingdom. The technology has been commercially launched in 2008 and works by sending a narrow light beam of energy into the ground using micro and radio waves.
Stove G.,Adrok Ltd. |
Stove G.C.,Adrok Ltd.
73rd European Association of Geoscientists and Engineers Conference and Exhibition 2011: Unconventional Resources and the Role of Technology. Incorporating SPE EUROPEC 2011 | Year: 2011
Adrok Ltd from Edinburgh, Scotland, have developed and deployed a novel electromagnetic technology for imaging and classifying subsurface rocks - the Adrok Scanner. In this presentation, Adrok will present results from a number of successful field trials of the technology. In certain cases, the technology was used to prognose subsurface lithology before drilling commenced. The Adrok Scanner can identify lithological tops with depths with great accuracy. Rock types are classified by training the Scanner on rock signatures based on energy and frequency analyses developed by Adrok. The technology sends and receives low powered, non-invasive microwave and radiowave signals into the ground. These signals are focussed to form beams of resonating energy that can be sent several kilometers into the ground and back. Adrok describes the technique in more detail in this presentation.
Agency: GTR | Branch: Innovate UK | Program: | Phase: Feasibility Study | Award Amount: 115.00K | Year: 2016
This project will determine the feasibility of using innovative remote sensing techniques to improve the rate of success in hydrocarbon exploration and development of onshore UK gas fields. The project will be lead by Adrok Ltd, a company which has been researching atomic dielectric resonance (ADR) as a method of determining elements in the subsurface and the depths of subsurface layers. There have been successful applications of this technology for mineral and hydrocarbon exploration in other countries but to date there has been almost no use of this technology in the UK. Adroks partner for this project will be IGas Group plc. IGas has more onshore UK fields on production than any other company and is also one of the leading companies for UK shale exploration. In addition, IGas has strong geological expertise and a large database of UK onshore seismic data. In 2016-17 IGas plans to acquire surface geochemistry data and to drill various exploration wells. The objective of the feasibility study will be to investigate how ADR results can be integrated with geological, geophysical and geochemical data to find and develop new onshore UK gas fields more efficiently.
Adrok Ltd. | Date: 2013-06-12
Disclosed is a method of determining subsurface composition of a surveyed region. The method comprises transmitting a pulsed electromagnetic signal into the ground and detecting a return signal following interaction of said transmitted signal with features of the subsurface, a profile image of the subsurface is then obtained, and one or more spectra of said return signal is calculated, said one or more spectra comprising one or more of an energy-frequency spectrum, a phase-frequency spectrum, a phase-energy and an energy-frequency spectrum. These spectra are analysed to determine a characteristic energy-frequency signature, phase-frequency signature, phase-energy signature and/or energy-frequency signature for one or more layers of said subsurface. The determined signature(s) are then compared to a database of equivalent signatures of known materials in order to determine a composition of said one or more layers.
Adrok Ltd. | Date: 2013-02-21
Scientific, nautical, surveying, photographic, cinematographic, optical, weighing, measuring, signalling and checking (supervision) apparatus and instruments in the nature of atomic dielectric resonance scanners; apparatus and instruments for receiving, recording, reproducing, analyzing, processing, displaying, storing and/or transmitting radio signals, images and/or data; computer software for gathering data, processing data and analyzing data for use in the field of geophysical survey services, firmware and hardware; computer software, firmware and hardware, all for imaging, mapping and/or identification purposes for use in the field of geophysical survey services; computer software and firmware, all for controlling the generation and analysis of radio signals; radar apparatus; transmitters of electronic signals; receivers of electronic signals; transceivers; aerials; antennas; radio frequency transmitters; radio frequency receivers; radio frequency transceivers; radio frequency reflectors; radio frequency aerials; radio frequency antennas; spectrometers; spectrographs; electronic sensors for transmitting and receiving atomic dielectric resonance signals/beams of electric energy; diagnostic apparatus, not for medical purposes, for analyzing rock and materials in situ in the ground or extracted from the ground in a laboratory setting; imaging apparatus, not for medical purposes; diagnostic imaging apparatus, not for medical purposes, for analyzing rock and materials in situ in the ground or extracted from the ground in a laboratory setting; atomic dielectric resonance apparatus for performing geophysical survey services, not for medical purposes; atomic dielectric resonance imaging apparatus, not for medical purposes for performing geophysical survey services; blank magnetic, optical, electro-magnetic and electro-optical data carriers; blank digitized data carriers; downloadable electronic publications featuring data of subsurface rock properties and measurements using an atomic dielectric resonance scanner; parts and fittings for all the aforesaid goods. Medical apparatus and instruments for imaging and/or diagnosing materials for medical applications; diagnostic apparatus for medical purposes in the nature of electromagnetic diagnostic testing apparatus; imaging apparatus for medical purposes in the nature of medical imaging apparatus incorporating medical imaging software; diagnostic imaging apparatus for medical purposes in the nature of medical imaging apparatus incorporating medical imaging software; testing apparatus for medical purposes for blood testing apparatus, stem cell analysis apparatus, human body scanning apparatus; atomic dielectric resonance apparatus for medical purposes for imaging and/or diagnosing materials for medical applications; atomic dielectric resonance imaging apparatus for medical purposes for imaging and/or diagnosing materials for medical applications; parts and fittings for all the aforesaid goods. Scientific and technological services in the nature of geophysical survey services and laboratory services and research and design relating thereto; industrial analysis and research services in the field of geophysical survey services and laboratory services; computer consultancy services; design and development of computer hardware, firmware and software; installation, maintenance and updating of computer software; design and development of computer hardware, firmware and software for imaging, mapping and/or identification purposes; installation, maintenance and updating of computer software for imaging, mapping and/or identification purposes; rental of computer hardware, firmware and software; mapping; cartography; surveying services; geological research and surveying; chemical, biochemical, biological and bacteriological research and analysis; laboratory testing services; materials testing, analysis and evaluation; rental of scientific apparatus and instruments; rental of laboratory apparatus and instruments; advisory, consultancy and information services relating to all the aforesaid services. Medical imaging services; medical testing for diagnostic and treatment purposes; rental of medical apparatus; rental of medical imaging apparatus; advisory, consultancy and information services relating to all the aforesaid services.
Adrok Ltd. | Entity website
Adrok Ltd. | Entity website
Kees was a seconded Research Associate from the University of British Columbia (Vancouver, Canada) from 2012 to end of March 2015, who had been working full-time with Adrok on validating and verifying the theory and fundamental physics behind Adroks technology. He joined Adrok in April 2015 ...