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Tilloy-lès-Mofflaines, France
Tilloy-lès-Mofflaines, France
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Botosoa E.P.,University of Artois | Chene C.,ADRIANOR | Karoui R.,University of Artois
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

In the present study, sponge cakes, produced at the pilot scale, were monitored during aging (i.e., 1, 3, 6, 9, 16, and 20 days) by three different analytical techniques. For the texture analyzer, the hardness and elasticity of crumb cakes were found to significantly increase and decrease, respectively, throughout aging. Color parameters (L*, a*, and b*) showed only slight change throughout aging, and a high correlation (R2 = 0.88) was observed between the whiteness and the yellowness. Tryptophan fluorescence spectra (excitation, 290 nm; emission, 305-490 nm) recorded on cakes exhibited three maxima located at 382, 435, and 467 nm that were attributed to maximum emission of tryptophan (382 nm) and fluorescent Maillard reaction products (435 and 467 nm). The principal component analysis (PCA) applied to the tryptophan spectra allowed a clear discrimination of cakes aged for 1, 3, and 6 days from those aged for 9, 16, and 20 days. Finally, canonical correlation analysis (CCA) performed on the textural and tryptophan fluorescence spectral data sets showed that the two groups of variables were highly correlated because the squared canonical coefficients for canonical variates were 0.99, indicating that cake texture determined at the macroscopic level by texture analyzer is a reflection of its structure at the molecular level determined by fluorescence spectroscopy. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Botosoa E.P.,University of Artois | Chene C.,ADRIANOR | Karoui R.,University of Artois
Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

Front face fluorescence spectroscopy coupled with chemometric tools was used as a useful tool for the monitoring of sponge cakes freshness, produced at the pilot scale, during ageing (i.e. 1, 3, 6, 9, 16, and 20 days). The fluorescence emission spectra were acquired in the 340-490 nm and 390-680 nm after excitation at 325 and 380 nm, respectively, while excitation spectra (250-390 nm) were scanned after emission at 410 nm. The primary and secondary products of lipid oxidation were also determined on the same cakes. The principal component analysis (PCA) applied to the each spectral collection obtained after excitation at 325 and 380 nm and emission at 410 nm allowed a clear discrimination of cakes according to their ageing. A high correlation between the intensity of fluorescence at 521 nm and the p-anisidine values was observed since squared correlation coefficient of 0.73 was obtained. The results showed that fluorescence spectroscopy could be used as a powerful tool for the evaluation of cake freshness throughout storage. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Delacharlerie S.,University of Liège | Poncelet C.,University of Liège | Chene C.,ADRIANOR | Sindic M.,University of Liège
OCL - Oleagineux Corps Gras Lipides | Year: 2012

Six types of fats (oils, shortenings and margarines) from different vegetable (hydrogenated or not) or animal origins have been studied in a cake model. Cakes have been characterized through Texture Profile Analysis and sensory evaluation. Texture analysis shows that studied fats can be classified in two main categories, giving different texture characteristics: liquid oils on one hand and fats containing a solid fraction on the other. Descriptive sensory evaluation leads to the same conclusions. On the contrary, hedonic sensory evaluation shows no difference between the different fats. The results in this paper indicate also that shortenings classical solid fat content can be reduced, without impact on the final product characteristics. This paper shows thus that the nutritional profile of bakery products can be improved, without sacrificing the sensory quality. Notably, the palm oil content (and thus the saturated fatty acids content) reduction of today shortenings could be an answer to nutritional and environmental concerns.


Botosoa E.P.,Institut Universitaire de France | Chene C.,ADRIANOR | Blecker C.,University of Liège | Karoui R.,Institut Universitaire de France
Food and Bioprocess Technology | Year: 2015

This paper presents a study on sponge cakes produced at the pilot scale and monitored during ageing (i.e. 1, 3, 6, 9, 16 and 20 day(s)) by different analytical techniques: nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results from NMR showed that the spin–lattice relaxation time (T1), measured on the crumb part, decreased from day 1 to day 16 while the spin–spin relaxation time (T2) increased throughout the whole storage time (i.e. 1 to 20 day(s)). Based on the analysis of the state of water, TGA allowed to establishing a kinetic profile of retrogradation degree of starch contained in sponge cakes. This approach evidenced that the evolution of the sponge cakes freshness and staling closely depends on the dynamic of the water in the crumb during ageing. These results were supported by DSC thermograms exhibiting a variation of three main endotherms detected in sponge cakes at −15, +5 and +45 °C throughout ageing. The enthalpy changes of these endotherms reflected the evolution of chemical and physical reactions occurring in the sponge cakes during storage. The analysis of the endotherm enthalpy change at 45 °C allowed to determine the time τ (i.e. τ ≈ 9 days) corresponding to the apparition of amylopectin crystallites that could be considered as a reference time to separate fresh sponge cakes from the aged ones. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

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