Adolf Butenandt Institute

München, Germany

Adolf Butenandt Institute

München, Germany
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Dambacher S.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Dambacher S.,Adolf Butenandt Institute | Deng W.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Hahn M.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | And 12 more authors.
Nucleus | Year: 2012

Centromeres are important structural constituents of chromosomes that ensure proper chromosome segregation during mitosis by providing defined sites for kinetochore attachment. In higher eukaryotes, centromeres have no specific DNA sequence and thus, they are rather determined through epigenetic mechanisms. A fundamental process in centromere establishment is the incorporation of the histone variant CENP-A into centromeric chromatin, which provides a binding platform for the other centromeric proteins. The Mis18 complex, and, in particular, its member M18BP1 was shown to be essential for both incorporation and maintenance of CENP-A. Here we show that M18BP1 displays a cell cycle-regulated association with centromeric chromatin in mouse embryonic stem cells. M18BP1 is highly enriched at centromeric regions from late anaphase through to G1 phase. An interaction screen against 16 core centromeric proteins revealed a novel interaction of M18BP1 with CENP-C. We mapped the interaction domain in M18BP1 to a central region containing a conserved SANT domain and in CENP-C to the C-terminus. Knock-down of CENP-C leads to reduced M18BP1 association and lower CENP-A levels at centromeres, suggesting that CENP-C works as an important factor for centromeric M18BP1 recruitment and thus for maintaining centromeric CENP-A. © 2012 Landes Bioscience.


Alvarez F.,Fundacion Ciencia para la Vida | Munoz F.,Fundacion Ciencia para la Vida | Schilcher P.,Adolf Butenandt Institute | Imhof A.,Adolf Butenandt Institute | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2011

Much progress has been made concerning histone function in the nucleus; however, following their synthesis, how their marking and subcellular trafficking are regulated remains to be explored. To gain an insight into these issues, we focused on soluble histones and analyzed endogenous and tagged H3 histones in parallel. We distinguished six complexes that we could place to account for maturation events occurring on histones H3 and H4 from their synthesis onward. In each complex, a different set of chaperones is involved, and we found specific post-translational modifications. Interestingly, we revealed that histones H3 and H4 are transiently poly-(ADP-ribosylated). The impact of these marks in histone metabolism proved to be important as we found that acetylation of lysines 5 and 12 on histone H4 stimulated its nuclear translocation. Furthermore, we showed that, depending on particular histone H3 modifications, the balance in the presence of the different translocation complexes changes. Therefore, our results enabled us to propose a regulatory means of these marks for controlling cytoplasmic/nuclear shuttling and the establishment of early modification patterns. © 2011 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.


Illner D.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Zinner R.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Handtke V.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Rouquette J.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | And 10 more authors.
Experimental Cell Research | Year: 2010

Extensive changes of higher order chromatin arrangements can be observed during prometaphase, terminal cell differentiation and cellular senescence. Experimental systems where major reorganization of nuclear architecture can be induced under defined conditions, may help to better understand the functional implications of such changes. Here, we report on profound chromatin reorganization in fibroblast nuclei by chaetocin, a thiodioxopiperazine metabolite. Chaetocin induces strong condensation of chromosome territories separated by a wide interchromatin space largely void of DNA. Cell viability is maintained irrespective of this peculiar chromatin phenotype. Cell cycle markers, histone signatures, and tests for cellular senescence and for oxidative stress indicate that chaetocin induced chromatin condensation/clustering (CICC) represents a distinct entity among nuclear phenotypes associated with condensed chromatin. The territorial organization of entire chromosomes is maintained in CICC nuclei; however, the conventional nuclear architecture harboring gene-dense chromatin in the nuclear interior and gene-poor chromatin at the nuclear periphery is lost. Instead gene-dense and transcriptionally active chromatin is shifted to the periphery of individual condensed chromosome territories where nascent RNA becomes highly enriched around their outer surface. This chromatin reorganization makes CICC nuclei an attractive model system to study this border zone as a distinct compartment for transcription. Induction of CICC is fully inhibited by thiol-dependent antioxidants, but is not related to the production of reactive oxygen species. Our results suggest that chaetocin functionally impairs the thioredoxin (Trx) system, which is essential for deoxynucleotide synthesis, but in addition involved in a wide range of cellular functions. The mechanisms involved in CICC formation remain to be fully explored. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.


Hahn M.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Hahn M.,Adolf Butenandt Institute | Dambacher S.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Dambacher S.,Adolf Butenandt Institute | And 26 more authors.
Genes and Development | Year: 2013

Cohesin plays an important role in chromatid cohesion and has additional functions in higher-order chromatin organization and in transcriptional regulation. The binding of cohesin to euchromatic regions is largely mediated by CTCF or the mediator complex. However, it is currently unknown how cohesin is recruited to pericentric heterochromatin in mammalian cells. Here we define the histone methyltransferase Suv4-20h2 as a major structural constituent of heterochromatin that mediates chromatin compaction and cohesin recruitment. Suv4- 20h2 stably associates with pericentric heterochromatin through synergistic interactions with multiple heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) molecules, resulting in compaction of heterochromatic regions. Suv4-20h mutant cells display an overall reduced chromatin compaction and an altered chromocenter organization in interphase referred to as "chromocenter scattering." We found that Suv4-20h-deficient cells display chromosome segregation defects during mitosis that coincide with reduced sister chromatid cohesion. Notably, cohesin subunits interact with Suv4-20h2 both in vitro and in vivo. This interaction is necessary for cohesin binding to heterochromatin, as Suv4- 20h mutant cells display substantially reduced cohesin levels at pericentric heterochromatin. This defect is most prominent in G0-phase cells, where cohesin is virtually lost from heterochromatin, suggesting that Suv4-20h2 is involved in the initial loading or maintenance of cohesion subunits. In summary, our data provide the first compelling evidence that Suv4-20h2 plays essential roles in regulating nuclear architecture and ensuring proper chromosome segregation. © 2013 by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.


Jasencakova Z.,Copenhagen University | Scharf A.N.D.,Adolf Butenandt Institute | Ask K.,Copenhagen University | Corpet A.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Cell | Year: 2010

To restore chromatin on new DNA during replication, recycling of histones evicted ahead of the fork is combined with new histone deposition. The Asf1 histone chaperone, which buffers excess histones under stress, is a key player in this process. Yet how histones handled by human Asf1 are modified remains unclear. Here we identify marks on histones H3-H4 bound to Asf1 and changes induced upon replication stress. In S phase, distinct cytosolic and nuclear Asf1b complexes show ubiquitous H4K5K12diAc and heterogeneous H3 marks, including K9me1, K14ac, K18ac, and K56ac. Upon acute replication arrest, the predeposition mark H3K9me1 and modifications typical of chromatin accumulate in Asf1 complexes. In parallel, ssDNA is generated at replication sites, consistent with evicted histones being trapped with Asf1. During recovery, histones stored with Asf1 are rapidly used as replication resumes. This shows that replication stress interferes with predeposition marking and histone recycling with potential impact on epigenetic stability. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


El Mkami H.,University of St. Andrews | Ward R.,University of Dundee | Ward R.,University of St. Andrews | Bowman A.,University of Dundee | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Magnetic Resonance | Year: 2014

Pulsed electron-electron double resonance (PELDOR) coupled with site-directed spin labeling is a powerful technique for the elucidation of protein or nucleic acid, macromolecular structure and interactions. The intrinsic high sensitivity of electron paramagnetic resonance enables measurement on small quantities of bio-macromolecules, however short relaxation times impose a limit on the sensitivity and size of distances that can be measured using this technique. The persistence of the electron spin-echo, in the PELDOR experiment, is one of the most crucial limitations to distance measurement. At a temperature of around 50 K one of the predominant factors affecting persistence of an echo, and as such, the sensitivity and measurable distance between spin labels, is the electron spin echo dephasing time (Tm). It has become normal practice to use deuterated solvents to extend Tm and recently it has been demonstrated that deuteration of the underlying protein significantly extends Tm. Here we examine the spatial effect of segmental deuteration of the underlying protein, and also explore the concentration and temperature dependence of highly deuterated systems. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.


Dindar G.,University of Würzburg | Anger A.M.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Mehlhorn C.,Adolf Butenandt Institute | Hake S.B.,Adolf Butenandt Institute | Janzen C.J.,University of Würzburg
Nature Communications | Year: 2014

DOT1 enzymes are conserved methyltransferases that catalyse the methylation of lysine 79 on histone H3 (H3K79). Most eukaryotes contain one DOT1 enzyme, whereas African trypanosomes have two homologues, DOT1A and DOT1B, with different enzymatic activities. DOT1A mediates mono- and dimethylation of H3K76, the homologue of H3K79 in other organisms, whereas DOT1B additionally catalyses H3K76 trimethylation. However, it is unclear how these different enzymatic activities are achieved. Here we employ a trypanosomal nucleosome reconstitution system and structure-guided homology modelling to identify critical residues within and outside the catalytic centre that modulate product specificity. Exchange of these residues transfers the product specificity from one enzyme to the other, and reveals the existence of distinct regulatory domains adjacent to the catalytic centre. Our study provides the first evidence that a few crucial residues in DOT1 enzymes are sufficient to catalyse methyl-state-specific reactions. These results might also have far-reaching consequences for the functional understanding of homologous enzymes in higher eukaryotes. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Nubling G.S.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Levin J.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Bader B.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Lorenzl S.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Background: In several neurodegenerative diseases, hyperphosphorylation at position Ser129 is found in fibrillar deposits of alpha-synuclein (asyn), implying a pathophysiological role of asyn phosphorylation in neurodegeneration. However, recent animal models applying asyn phosphorylation mimics demonstrated a protective effect of phosphorylation. Since metal-ion induced asyn oligomers were identified as a potential neurotoxic aggregate species with membrane pore-forming abilities, the current study was undertaken to determine effects of asyn phosphorylation on oligomer membrane binding. Methods: We investigated the influence of S129 phosphorylation on interactions of metal-ion induced asyn oligomers with small unilamellar lipid vesicles (SUV) composed of POPC and DPPC applying the phosphorylation mimic asyn129E. Confocal single-particle fluorescence techniques were used to monitor membrane binding at the single-particle level. Results: Binding of asyn129E monomers to gel-state membranes (DPPC-SUV) is slightly reduced compared to wild-type asyn, while no interactions with membranes in the liquid-crystalline state (POPC-SUV) are seen for both asyn and asyn129E. Conversely, metal-ion induced oligomer formation is markedly increased in asyn129E. Surprisingly, membrane binding to POPC-SUV is nearly absent in Fe3+ induced asyn129E oligomers and markedly reduced in Al3+ induced oligomers. Conclusion: The protective effect of pseudophosphorylation seen in animal models may be due to impeded oligomer membrane binding. Phosphorylation at Ser129 may thus have a protective effect against neurotoxic asyn oligomers by preventing oligomer membrane binding and disruption of the cellular electrophysiological equilibrium. Importantly, these findings put a new complexion on experimental pharmaceutical interventions against POLO-2 kinase. © 2014 Nüebling et al.


PubMed | Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, Paracelsus Medical University and Adolf Butenandt Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2014

In several neurodegenerative diseases, hyperphosphorylation at position Ser129 is found in fibrillar deposits of alpha-synuclein (asyn), implying a pathophysiological role of asyn phosphorylation in neurodegeneration. However, recent animal models applying asyn phosphorylation mimics demonstrated a protective effect of phosphorylation. Since metal-ion induced asyn oligomers were identified as a potential neurotoxic aggregate species with membrane pore-forming abilities, the current study was undertaken to determine effects of asyn phosphorylation on oligomer membrane binding.We investigated the influence of S129 phosphorylation on interactions of metal-ion induced asyn oligomers with small unilamellar lipid vesicles (SUV) composed of POPC and DPPC applying the phosphorylation mimic asyn129E. Confocal single-particle fluorescence techniques were used to monitor membrane binding at the single-particle level.Binding of asyn129E monomers to gel-state membranes (DPPC-SUV) is slightly reduced compared to wild-type asyn, while no interactions with membranes in the liquid-crystalline state (POPC-SUV) are seen for both asyn and asyn129E. Conversely, metal-ion induced oligomer formation is markedly increased in asyn129E. Surprisingly, membrane binding to POPC-SUV is nearly absent in Fe(3+) induced asyn129E oligomers and markedly reduced in Al(3+) induced oligomers.The protective effect of pseudophosphorylation seen in animal models may be due to impeded oligomer membrane binding. Phosphorylation at Ser129 may thus have a protective effect against neurotoxic asyn oligomers by preventing oligomer membrane binding and disruption of the cellular electrophysiological equilibrium. Importantly, these findings put a new complexion on experimental pharmaceutical interventions against POLO-2 kinase.

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