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Del Carmen Valverde A.,University of Buenos Aires | Crespo F.A.,Administracion Nacional Of Laboratorios E Institutos Of Salud Dr Carlos G Malbran | Sandra Iglesias M.,University of Buenos Aires

The genital sclerites of the male, the female and the mature nymph of Schistopeltis lizeri are described. The genitalia of S. lizeri, S. microschistos and S. peculiaris are compared. The generic status of Schistopeltis is validated although it has close relationship with Tribonium. © 2012 Magnolia Press IS. Source

Fernandez M.D.B.,University of Buenos Aires | Torres C.,University of Buenos Aires | Poma H.R.,National University of Salta | Riviello-Lopez G.,Laboratorio Quimico | And 5 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment

Norovirus (NoV) contamination was evaluated in five rivers of Argentina between 2005 and 2011. NoV was present in all sampled rivers, with distinct NoV patterns in waters impacted by different-sized communities. In rivers affected by medium-sized populations (Salta and Córdoba cities) only one or two genotypes were present, GII.4 being the main one, with winter seasonality. In contrast, in the much more heavily populated area of Buenos Aires city the prevalent GII.4 was accompanied by several additional genotypes (GII.4, GII.b, GII.2, GII.7, GII.17, GII.e and GII.g) and one ungenotyped GII NoV, with no clear seasonality.GII.4 2006b was the main variant detected (60.9%). Phylogeographic and phylodynamic analyses performed in region D of the VP1 gene showed a most recent common ancestor in 2002 and a substitution rate of 3.7×10-3 substitutions per site per year (HPD95%=2.3×10-3-5.2×10-3) for this variant still involving a significant population size with a slight decrease since 2008. The spatio-temporal diffusion analysis proposed Europe as an intermediate path between the American Continent and the rest of the World for NoV dissemination. Given the importance of NoV as a cause of epidemic gastroenteritis and the likelihood of its environmental transmission, the results of this work should increase public and institutional awareness of the health risk involved in sewage discharges into the environment. Environmental surveillance of enteric viruses could be a very useful tool not only to prevent waterborne outbreaks, but also to describe the epidemiology of the viruses. The detailed analysis of the viral genomes disposed into the environment contributed to the characterization of the dissemination, diversity and seasonality of NoV in its natural host population. In future studies, environmental surveillance and molecular analysis should be complemented with a quantitative viral risk assessment for estimating the disease burden from viruses in the environment. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

Crespo F.A.,Administracion Nacional Of Laboratorios E Institutos Of Salud Dr Carlos G Malbran | Valverde A.D.C.,University of Buenos Aires | Iglesias M.S.,University of Buenos Aires

An updated catalogue is given of the cockroach species recorded in Argentina. It includes a list of species, their distribution in the different provinces of the country, the institutions in which the type specimens are deposited, and an updated list of references. The results indicate 87 (plus 2 incertae sedis) species, included in 4 families, 12 subfamilies and 40 currently recognized genera. A few species are widely spread across the country, but 35% (29 + 2 incertae sedis) are only known to occur in Argentina. The biotic affinities of the biogeographic provinces were studied. The data analysis corresponds with the major areas of influence: the Neotropical and Andean regions. A parsimony analysis of endemicity (PAE) was performed. The Parana Forest, Pampa and Chaco biogeographic provinces are supported by numerous endemic species. The families Blaberidae, Blattellidae and Phyllodromiidae include 90% of the species. The cockroach fauna from Argentina is still poorly known and the number of species undoubtedly is higher. The primary homonym of Chorisoneura minuta Rocha e Silva & Aguiar, 1977 was replaced with Chorisoneura rochaesilvae nom. n. Copyright © 2010 · Magnolia Press. Source

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH.2012.2.3.2-4 | Award Amount: 3.99M | Year: 2012

The BERENICE consortium is aiming at providing a new and cost-effective solution to a better treatment for Chagas chronic patients. Please see its objectives below : Main objective Obtain a more effective, better tolerated and cheaper formulation of a drug with trypanocidal activity to cure Chagas disease Specific Objectives Obtain results of pharmacokinetics of new formulations Assess trypanocidal activity of new formulations in vitro and in animal model Involve partners, research and industry in endemic countries to promote technology transfer and promote in-site solutions at cheaper cost. The foreseen results of this project would have firstly an impact on the better comprehension and control of the SUVs behavior as drug delivery nanodevices for the specific APIs to be conjugated. If this conjugation is successful, further impacts are expected dealing with technology transfer issues, such as scale-up of the corresponding SUVs preparation methodology and its implementation at industrial scale. Apart from including stong participation from endemic countriess institutions, the consortium also involves private companies, thus enabling the participation of all the key actors of the chain to confront and control better Chagas disease. The innovative approach, through the new developed nano- and microparticles based formulations will have an important impact on the safety of the medicament since the therapeutic efficacy will increase and consequently the doses needed and the incidences caused by adverse effects will be reduced.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH-2007-2.3.2-3 | Award Amount: 3.64M | Year: 2008

Tuberculosis (TB) continues being a leading cause of death due to a single infectious disease agent. The HIV/AIDS pandemic and the emergence of drug resistance are compounding factors that hinder the control of the disease. Associated with this problem is the emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, defined as strains resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampicin, the most valuable drugs in the treatment of the disease. More recently, the appearance of extensively drug resistant (XDR) strains has been reported. These strains, in addition to being MDR, are also resistant to key second-line drugs. Patients, especially HIV patients, harbouring XDR strains have virtually no treatment options. New and improved methods for fast detection of drug resistance are urgently needed. This project will develop a twofold-approach system for the fast and simultaneous detection of MDR and XDR strains based on a rapid phenotypic assay and a genotypic test. Colorimetric methods, which have been previously validated by our group for first-line drug susceptibility testing, will be developed for key second-line drugs involved in XDRTB. Once set up, these methods will be further elaborated for direct application to sputum specimens. The molecular tool will be based on a modification of the novel technology named detection of immobilized amplified product in one phase system. This single step amplification method will be developed in a versatile microtitre well strip format for detection first of MDR and then of XDR strains. The tools will be then validated in different settings and prospectively evaluated in target populations. The project will contribute to the currently available armamentarium for rapid detection of drug resistant TB and will introduce new tools for the detection of the recently-described and highly-lethal XDRTB. It will also contribute to our knowledge on the mechanisms of M. tuberculosis resistance to second-line drugs.

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