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Proceedings of the Annual Offshore Technology Conference | Year: 2016

Mitigation of lateral buckling is one of the key design challenges for HP/HT subsea pipelines. Case studies of lateral buckling designs in shallow water developments are used to examine the merits and shortcomings of the different mitigation techniques. The case studies include both Greenfield and Brownfield developments as well as existing pipelines in operation. The assessment covers the design methodology, design challenges and methodology adopted to overcome those challenges as well as interaction with other pipeline design activities. Key factors such as technical feasibility, constructability and costeffectiveness of the different mitigation techniques are considered. The different lateral buckling mitigation techniques described are generally applicable to subsea pipelines in shallow water developments. The methods can be classified into two main approaches. The first is to prevent buckling and the second is to allow buckling to occur in a controlled manner. Hence, a key decision for the designer is whether to aim for buckle prevention or buckle control i.e. to buckle or not to buckle. The assessment of the different techniques used for lateral buckling demonstrates that there is no 'one size fits all' solution. Unlike deep water applications where buckle prevention might be technically unfeasible or prohibitively expensive, the prevalence of shallow water in the Arabian Gulf region makes both buckle prevention and buckle control generally feasible and cost effective solution. However, each mitigation approach has its own pros and cons as well as limitations on its applicability and therefore the mitigation approach should be determined on a case by case basis based on comprehensive technoeconomic assessment. Hence, understanding the merits and shortcomings of the different approaches is considered instrumental for proper selection of lateral buckling mitigation technique. This paper provides guidance to the designer for the selection of mitigation approach through consolidation of the understanding of the merits and shortcomings of typical lateral buckling mitigation techniques in shallow water applications. Copyright 2016, Offshore Technology Conference.

Society of Petroleum Engineers - Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition and Conference 2012, ADIPEC 2012 - Sustainable Energy Growth: People, Responsibility, and Innovation | Year: 2012

In response to the "Call for Proposal" for ADIPEC -2012, I'm pleased to submit a paper proposal for Managing Risk in Simultaneous Operations (SIMOPS) under Maintenance/Integrity/HSE/Operations Technical Categories for your consideration. Simultaneous Operation is defined as parallel operation of two or more activities e.g. drilling and production at the same time. Occurrence of this kind of operation exposes the parties to variety risks which due to their interaction. As a result parties before executing the activities meets and studies the mitigation factors taking into account ADMA-OPCO levels of safety .Considering a high production tower we utilize the full measures of SIMOPS. Nevertheless, this type of operation is not the case always for drilling. Maintenance campaigns were jobs under live conditions are executed, for that reason the oil tower needs to be shutdown and SIMOPS concept indeed essential to re-commission the tower. Planning SIMOPS is time consuming due the measures needed to start such operation; the arrangements should contain F&G systems, Deluge system, production crew, panic bottoms on rig floor and the company representative beside other items. Finalizing the HSE audit takes more time. This measures delay the tower commission for a while accordingly losses in production occurs. Managing risks was excellent approach in making the SIMOPS operation much more efficient for our operation is profitable for the company I work for. The results were unprecedented indeed. We managed to shorten time of SIMOPS preparation, comply with the HSEQA regulation, reduce shutdown period of WHT accordingly gain more production, apply maintenance activities and reduce the time of the maintenance barge on-site. This technical paper will introduce our SIMOPS concept of managing risk during maintenance activities and present a case study of a similar case handled previously. Copyright 2012, Society of Petroleum Engineers.

Yonebayashi H.,INPEX | Al Mutairi A.,ADMA OPCO | Al Habshi A.,ADMA OPCO | Urasaki D.,INPEX JODCO
SPE Reservoir Evaluation and Engineering | Year: 2011

Asphaltene study is now becoming a regular menu as a part of gas-injection studies (Kokal et al. 2003, 2004; Yin et al. 2000; Srivastava et al. 1999; Yin and Yen 2000; Parra-Ramirez et al. 2001; Sarma 2003; Jamaluddin et al. 2000; Negahban et al. 2005; Okwen 2006; Moghadasi et al. 2006). The asphaltene onset pressure (AOP) is one of the most important factors in understanding asphaltene precipitating behavior. The solid detection system (SDS) based on light-scattering technique has been quite popular and widely used in all over the world (Kokal et al. 2003, 2004; Jamaluddin et al. 2000; Negahban et al. 2005; Gholoum et al. 2003; Garcia et al. 2001; Oskui et al. 2006; Gonzalez et al. 2007) to measure AOP. The simple experiments to measure AOP are usually conducted using a mixture of reservoir fluid and injection gas, and various gas-mixing volumes are assumed to be investigated. These various experimental specifications of gas-mixing volume are useful in understanding asphaltene risks during gas-injection projects. However, this type of investigation can show only a static asphaltene behavior, and sometimes might overlook true asphaltene risks. In the gas-injection pilot (GIP) project in an offshore carbonate oil field in the Arabian Gulf, the static asphaltene behavior was studied by the SDS using near-infrared (NIR) light-scattering technique. For this study, a single-phase bottomhole sample was collected from the same producing zone, but the sampling location was 90 ft shallower than the GIP area. Various combinations of mixtures were examined to measure AOP (i.e., reservoir fluid mixed with 0, 25, 37.5, 43.5, and 50 mol% injection gas). Furthermore, the numerical models were generated and calibrated with the experimental findings. To evaluate the asphaltene risks at the GIP area, the models were adjusted to the target oil composition by considering existing oil compositional gradient in the field. However, the modeling analyses showed that the operating conditions of producing wells are outside the estimated asphaltene-precipitation envelope (APE). This result was inconsistent with the field fact in which actual asphaltene deposits were observed and collected from the bottomhole of some wells in the GIP area. Thus we were obliged to recognize that our current experimental results of static asphaltene behavior overlooked the actual asphaltene risks. What is insufficient for realistic modeling? Our hypothesis is the dynamic asphaltene behavior. During a gas-injection process, the injected-gas composition is changed because of a vaporizing-gas-drive (VGD) mechanism, in which gas was enriched with the intermediate-molecular-weight hydrocarbons from reservoir oil. Our latest experiments investigated a static asphaltene behavior only; that is, it did not include this process. Therefore, the sensitivity analyses were motivated to realistically evaluate the actual APE, counting the VGD effects with the calibrated model. Various enriched-gas compositions were investigated in terms of how these enriched gases would affect APE. Consequently, it was found that the enrichment of intermediate components expanded the APE, and the operating conditions of asphaltene-problematic wells could be placed inside the APE. Therefore, we concluded that the dynamic asphaltene behavior must be understood for a realistic risk evaluation in the gas-injection project. Copyright © 2011 Society of Petroleum Engineers.

Belhaj H.,The Petroleum Institute | Abukhalifeh H.,The Petroleum Institute | Javid K.,ADMA OPCO
Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering | Year: 2013

Carbon dioxide miscible injection is one of the non-thermal effective enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods. In the Middle East, particularly Abu Dhabi, pilot testing is already implemented in the Rumaitha Field for CO2 miscible injection. This paper investigates the means of improving CO2 miscible injection by enriching it with N2 and HC gases. The emphasis is on identifying CO2 solvent mixtures with reduced MMP to achieve miscibility at reasonable injection pressures in Abu Dhabi fields. The minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) of targeted oils from Abu Dhabi carbonate reservoirs with mixtures of N2, CH4, C2H6, and HC rich gases of varying composition with CO2 injection gas are evaluated through simulation. The first contact miscibility (FCM) and the multiple contact miscibility (MCM) of injected gases/oil mixture under reservoir temperature have been determined using WINPROP module of the Computer Modeling Group (CMG) simulator. In addition, the corresponding oil recovery factors for various N2/CO2 content displacements were calculated by 1-D compositional simulation of slim tube using BUILDER and GEM module of CMG Simulator. Results show that miscibility is predicted to occur with multiple contact miscibility (MCM): vaporization and/or condensation mechanisms. The increase of C2H6 concentration in the CO2 injected gas reduced MMPs for targeted Oil 1 by 100psi/10mol%. However, N2, CH4 and HC rich gas increments in CO2 injected gas increased the MMPs for targeted Oil 1. MMP was observed to be 2300psi for pure ethane with Oil 1. In addition, MMPs for targeted oils with N2/C2H6 and N2/CH4 injected gas mixtures are assessed. This study can open possibilities for future enriching of CO2 and N2 miscible injection to improve miscibility and recovery of oil. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Al Mutwali O.,ADMA OPCO
2nd EAGE Workshop on Geosteering and Well Placement: Geosteering and the Benefits it Brings to Subsurface Understanding | Year: 2013

Prior to the global oilfield boom and its effect on technological development, wellbores were restricted to simple vertical drilling and basic wireline logging. However, technological developments in line with increased global energy demand, has resulted in commercially viable development efforts for previously untapped unconventional reservoirs. The challenges associated with unlocking the potential of these highly heterogeneous and thin reservoirs has encouraged a fresh approach for reservoir development and management strategy, including increased utilization of deviated and horizontal well drilling in order to maximize reservoir exposure, hence flow area for hydrocarbons. This brought on the introduction of steerable and logging while drilling systems, consequently the industry began its step change in its outlook towards drilling and logging operations.

Binthabet H.A.M.,ADMA OPCO | Loganathan L.,ADMA OPCO
Society of Petroleum Engineers - Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition and Conference, ADIPEC 2015 | Year: 2015

ADMA-OPCO conducted a multi-disciplinary/stakeholder taskforce to analyse learnings from past 10 years of shutdown history across all assets. It was revealed that whilst there were evidence of strong accountability and ownership of safe shutdown execution, inadequate planning and disciplined scope control contributed to shortfalls in overall shutdown performance. It was also identified that approaching shutdown as Integrated Shutdown Management Project (ISMP) provides significant step change towards successful and sustainable future shutdown both short tem and long term. Copyright 2015, Society of Petroleum Engineers.

Al-Jarwan A.,ADMA OPCO | Omar S.,ADMA OPCO
Society of Petroleum Engineers - Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition and Conference, ADIPEC 2015 | Year: 2015

Objectives/Scope: ADMA-OPCO as a part of Corporate Social Responsibility initiated this project to support the country's vision for Emiratization with competent workforce. This project develops competent Fresh Operators & Technicians (O&T's) to accelerate the quality emiratization process and to meet the major business challenges ahead. Methods, Procedures, Process: ADMA-OPCO constructed 4 Process Training Pilot Plants (PTPP's) at ADNOC Technical Institute (ATI) to provide safe environment allowing O&T's to carry out their routine activities on fully functional plants safely. These plants cover the following: • Wellhead plant including multi-phase flow meter for well testing and pig launcher • Oil and Gas separation, desalting and crude stabilization plant • Gas sweetening unit • Gas Glycol Dehydration Unit The above plants are equipped with control room / Distributing Control System (DCS) operations with defined specific On-Job-Training (OJT) tasks for all trades viz Mechanical, Control, Electrical and Operators. Results, Observations, Conclusions: ADMA-OPCO introduces this unique project as • An additional opportunity and new methodology to develop ADNOC / OPCO'S O&T's with high competency in optimized development duration • An evidence of partnership empowerment between ADMA-OPCO as end user and ATI as vocational training providers • To meet the business demands like high skillset and the manpower required to work with the new projects facilities in all OPCO's • This Innovative solution will improve the skills of the front-line workforce through the enhanced development syllabus of the vocational education and focusing on the hands-on-skills of the graduates prior joining their employers Following the successful commissioning in February 2015; ADMA-OPCO during the 1st year of utilization has achieved the following: • Developed 70 competent technician's in an optimized duration • Carried out 40 female engineers plant induction without sending them to the offshore platforms • 14 electrical technicians completed two OJTs advanced troubleshooting course. • Completed the summer internship of UAE's universities students Novel/Additive Information: The O&T's are benefited to carry out the routine activities similar to the actual plants safely and effectively. It is the 1st time across Middle East and perhaps the world too: • Build PTPPs for gas sweetening and glycol dehydration operations. • Built such plants at vocational training institute Configurations of the plants are much higher than similar plants installed across the world including; USA, Russia, Syria, Algeria & Nigeria. Copyright 2015, Society of Petroleum Engineers.

Society of Petroleum Engineers - SPE Middle East Health, Safety, Security, and Environment Conf. and Exhibition 2012, MEHSSE - Sustaining World Energy Through an Integrated HSSE and Business Approach | Year: 2012

The purpose of this paper is to provide the best practice to prevent injuries and fatalities during drills and maintenance for totally enclosed motor propelled survival craft (TEMPSC) on any normally manned Fixed offshore installations, Mobile Offshore Drilling Rigs, jack-up barges and floating barges/ heavy lift vessels to ensure safe evacuation of personnel to safe place where they can be recovered. Lifeboats have been involved in a number of serious/fatal incidents during maintenance operations and drills (e.g. Offshore Drilling Rig AD22 in 2009) when the boat has inadvertently fallen into the sea. The outcomes of worldwide Survey investigated the root causes of most lifeboats incidents in the last 15 years, Root causes have been categorized as follow: • Unsafe practices during lifeboat drills and inspections; • Communication failures; • Inadequate maintenance of lifeboats, davits and launching equipment; • Inadequate training for personnel maintaining/operating the lifeboat. • Lack of familiarity with lifeboats, davits, equipment and associated controls; • Failure of on-load release mechanism; • Inadvertent operation of on-load release mechanism;and • Design faults other than on-load release mechanisms. [2] The survey highlited that unsafe drills by manned launching and recovery of lifeboats and poor maintenance have been played the significant root causes in the high number of incidents and consequences. Totally enclosed motor propelled survival craft (TEMPSC) should be considered to be a safety-critical element, Therefore Performance Standards should be established and a Written Scheme of Verification prepared to demonstrate their integrity. Performance standards should be expressed in qualitative and quantitative terms against the fundamental parameters of Functionality, Reliability/Availability, and Survivability and should be measurable & auditable. Eliminating the associated root causes of fatal Lifeboats accidents during launching and recovery of lifeboats for the purpose of drills/preventive planned maintenance program is the way forward by Making Lifeboat Drills Safer. Copyright 2012, Society of Petroleum Engineers.

Society of Petroleum Engineers - SPE Middle East Health, Safety, Security, and Environment Conf. and Exhibition 2012, MEHSSE - Sustaining World Energy Through an Integrated HSSE and Business Approach | Year: 2012

To maintain oil production at sustainable rates through minimizing the production loss factors, there was a need to investigate the feasibility of conducting SIMOPS on old wood, unprepared & un-equipped, high producing oil Well Head Towers (WHT). For this purpose, Management has formed a multi-disciplined team to investigate the possibility of allowing oil production & water injection operations while carrying out drilling/workover activity in a similar manner to that adopted for ZADCO oil WHTs. While SIMOPS has never been implemented on ADMA-OPCO WHTs for oil production, it was noted that water injection SIMOPS was already under implementation. The methodology adopted by the taskforce is as follows : (i) re-visiting the risk assessment which constituted the basis for the current SIMOPS by ZADCO through ADMA-OPCO. (ii) Categorising & identifying the WHTs where SIMOPS can be implemented based on considerable incremental oil production level. (iii) Site verification of SIMOPS by ZADCO. (iv) Reviewing & amending the current SIMOPS procedures with the purpose of producing special procedure for ADMA-OPCO oil WHTs. Site verification visits to rigs carrying out SIMOPS were made where open discussions with rig personnel were held and equipment / systems were checked and tested. It was noted during the function test of the deluge system that the water supply by the injection facilities/ system on the WHTs is satisfactory where as the back up water supply from the rig was ineffective. The risk assessment has shown that most hazards are assessed at ALARP or acceptable level except for the following: • Rig Collapse : Mitigation of the hazard is through the major improvements in NDC Systems (Management, Maintenance). • Dropped Objects : Mitigation through re-enforced Impact Protection on top of production facilities. • High Pressure Testing : Shut down production and depressurisation of service pipe works will constitute appropriate protection. The current SIMOPS procedures maintained in ADMA-OPCO's were reviewed and amended to reflect the required modification to allow for SIMOPS on ADMA-OPCO Towers. The SIMOPS procedure will require formal approval of Site Operating Authorities (Umm Al Shaif (US), Zakum (ZK)), both Asset Managers & the Drilling Manager. Copyright 2012, Society of Petroleum Engineers.

Society of Petroleum Engineers - 14th Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition and Conference 2010, ADIPEC 2010 | Year: 2010

ADMA-OPCO Engineering Division has recently innovated a Subsea Cooling Scheme capable of rapidly cooling down the temperature of operating fluids even in high flow gas pipelines. The scheme can be inherent into the original pipeline design without adding any additional costs resulting in the elimination/ reduction of various major risks whenever temperature is a main contributor. The higher the temperature, the higher are the cost savings and risk eliminations/ reductions. ADMA-OPCO has already applied the scheme into the detailed design of one of its major gas projects resulting in extensive savings in addition to other numerous benefits relevant to risk reduction and operations. The subject paper describes the challenging process of identifying all risks associated with the first application of its kind. Not less challenging was the technical management of those identified risks to acceptable levels. In addition to above, the paper describes the concept of subsea cooling and what are the associated extensive benefits to the pipeline system design and operations. Moreover, how to technically adopt such scheme to various needs utilizing the knowledge captured from the pilot application in ADMA-OPCO Project. The paper also briefly describes typical constraints which would limit the application of such a scheme. Finally, the paper highlights potential future developments relevant to the concept/ scheme and what is deemed required for widening its applicability. Copyright 2010, Society of Petroleum Engineers.

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