ADM Research

Decatur, IL, United States

ADM Research

Decatur, IL, United States
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Shi H.T.,China Agricultural University | Cao Z.J.,China Agricultural University | Wang Y.J.,China Agricultural University | Li S.L.,China Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition | Year: 2016

The objective of this study was to determine the optimum conditions for calcium oxide (CaO) treatment of anaerobically stored corn stover by in situ and in vitro methods. Four ruminally cannulated, non-lactating, non-pregnant Holstein cows were used to determine the in situ effective degradabilities of dry matter (ISDMD), organic matter (ISOMD), neutral detergent fibre (ISNDFD), in vitro organic matter disappearance (IVOMD) and gas production in 72 h (GP72h) of corn stover. A completely randomized design involving a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement was adopted. Ground corn stover was treated with different levels of CaO (3%, 5% and 7% of dry stover) at varying moisture contents (40%, 50% and 60%) and stored under anaerobic conditions for 15 days before analysis. Compared with untreated corn stover, the CaO-treated stover had increased ash and calcium (Ca) contents but decreased aNDF and OM contents. The moisture content, CaO level and their interaction affected (p < 0.01) the content of aNDF, ash and OM, and the ratio of aNDF/OM. The greatest ISDMD, ISOMD and ISNDFD were observed when stover was treated with 7% CaO and 60% moisture, while no differences (p > 0.01) in these in situ degradability parameters were observed between the stover treated with 5% CaO at 60% moisture content and those treated with 7% CaO at 60% moisture content. Corn stover treated with 5% CaO at 50% moisture had the maximum IVOMD and GP72 h among the treatments, and there was no difference (p > 0.01) between 50% and 60% moisture. Results from this study suggested that 5% CaO applied at 60% moisture could be an effective and economical treatment combination. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH


PubMed | ADM Research and China Agricultural University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of animal physiology and animal nutrition | Year: 2016

The objective of this study was to determine the optimum conditions for calcium oxide (CaO) treatment of anaerobically stored corn stover by insitu and invitro methods. Four ruminally cannulated, non-lactating, non-pregnant Holstein cows were used to determine the insitu effective degradabilities of dry matter (ISDMD), organic matter (ISOMD), neutral detergent fibre (ISNDFD), invitro organic matter disappearance (IVOMD) and gas production in 72h (GP72h ) of corn stover. A completely randomized design involving a 33 factorial arrangement was adopted. Ground corn stover was treated with different levels of CaO (3%, 5% and 7% of dry stover) at varying moisture contents (40%, 50% and 60%) and stored under anaerobic conditions for 15days before analysis. Compared with untreated corn stover, the CaO-treated stover had increased ash and calcium (Ca) contents but decreased aNDF and OM contents. The moisture content, CaO level and their interaction affected (p<0.01) the content of aNDF, ash and OM, and the ratio of aNDF/OM. The greatest ISDMD, ISOMD and ISNDFD were observed when stover was treated with 7% CaO and 60% moisture, while no differences (p>0.01) in these insitu degradability parameters were observed between the stover treated with 5% CaO at 60% moisture content and those treated with 7% CaO at 60% moisture content. Corn stover treated with 5% CaO at 50% moisture had the maximum IVOMD and GP72h among the treatments, and there was no difference (p>0.01) between 50% and 60% moisture. Results from this study suggested that 5% CaO applied at 60% moisture could be an effective and economical treatment combination.


Drewnoski M.E.,Iowa State University | Doane P.,ADM Research | Hansen S.L.,Iowa State University
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2014

Dissimilatory reduction of sulphate by sulphate-reducing bacteria in the rumen produces sulphide, which can lead to a build-up of the toxic gas hydrogen sulphide (H2S) in the rumen when increased concentrations of sulphate are consumed by ruminants. We hypothesised that adding ferric Fe would competitively inhibit ruminal sulphate reduction. The effects of five concentrations and two sources (ferric citrate or ferric ammonium citrate) of ferric Fe were examined in vitro (n 6 per treatment). Rumen fluid was collected from a steer that was adapted to a high-concentrate, high-sulphate diet (0·51% S). The addition of either source of ferric Fe decreased (P<0·01) H2S concentrations without affecting gas production (P=0·38), fluid pH (P=0·80) or in vitro DM digestibility (P=0·38) after a 24h incubation. An in vivo experiment was conducted using eight ruminally fistulated steers (543 (sem 12)kg) in a replicated Latin square with four periods and four treatments. The treatments included a high-concentrate, high-sulphate control diet (0·46% S) or the control diet plus ferric ammonium citrate at concentrations of 200, 300 or 400mg Fe/kg diet DM. The inclusion of ferric Fe did not affect DM intake (P=0·21). There was a linear (P<0·01) decrease in the concentration of ruminal H2S as the addition of ferric Fe concentrations increased. Ferric citrate appears to be an effective way to decrease ruminal H2S concentrations, which could allow producers to safely increase the inclusion of ethanol co-products. Copyright © The Authors 2013.


Hall M.B.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Nennich T.D.,Purdue University | Doane P.H.,ADM Research | Brink G.E.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2015

Volatile fatty acid concentrations ([VFA], mM) have long been used to assess the effect of dietary treatments on ruminal fermentation in vivo. However, discrepancies in statistical results between [VFA] and VFA pool size (VFAmol) possibly related to ruminal digesta liquid amount (LIQ, kg) indicate potential issues with the use of [VFA]. We investigated relationships among [VFA], VFAmol, and LIQ measured 2 h postfeeding using individual lactating cow data (n=175) from 7 separate feeding studies. Regression analyses were performed using mixed models with "study" as a discrete random variable. The mean across studies and average range of values within studies, respectively, were 151 and 75 for [VFA], 11.2 and 9.8 for VFAmol, 73.3 and 41.0 for LIQ, and 289 and 83mmol/kg for rumen fluid osmolality. Liquid amount changed with VFAmol (3.76 VFAmol + 31.2; average within-study R2=0.69), but the relationship was weak between [VFA] and LIQ (0.524 LIQ + 112.8; average within-study R2=0.12). The relationship between LIQ and VFAmol was likely a function of the osmotic gradient between rumen liquid and blood. The VFA are a major ruminal solute; VFAmol amounts can affect water flux in the rumen as similar tonicities of rumen fluid and blood are maintained. This also has a damping effect on ruminal solute concentration, creating the weak relationship between [VFA] and LIQ. Within studies, similar [VFA] were found in LIQ differing by 30kg or more. The difference between minimum and maximum LIQ within cow within study was 12.7kg (standard deviation=7.1), so inclusion of "cow" in analyses did not correct for the variation in LIQ. To allow valid comparisons of experimental treatments, responses must be on an equivalent basis; concentrations in different LIQ are not on an equivalent basis and so are not valid to use for comparing treatment effects. The [VFA] changed with VFAmol (5.80 VFAmol + 86.3; average within-study R2=0.56). However, the ratio of [VFA] to VFAmol ranged from 9.0 to 24.1 as a function of 1,000/LIQ; this reflects the inherent calculated relationship among the variables. The varying relationship of [VFA] to VFAmol further indicates that [VFA] is not an appropriate measure to evaluate the progress or effect of treatments on ruminal fermentation. Predictions of LIQ and VFAmol using cow and ruminal measures were insufficiently precise to be used in research. Previously drawn conclusions based on [VFA] need to be reevaluated, and alternate evaluations for in vivo ruminal fermentation are needed. © 2015 American Dairy Science Association.


Kaiser M.G.,Iowa State University | Block S.S.,ADM Research | Ciraci C.,Iowa State University | Fang W.,Iowa State University | And 2 more authors.
Poultry Science | Year: 2012

Vitamin E modulates the immune response, in part by reducing inflammation. The bacterial component lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can induce an inflammatory response in chickens. The objective of this study was to evaluate immunomodulatory effects of dietary type and level of vitamin E on response of broilers to LPS. One-day-old broiler males (n = 96) were placed in a vitamin E-type (synthetic, natural) × vitamin E level (22, 220 IU/kg) × LPS (LPS, saline) block design. At 22 d, LPS (or saline) was injected subcutaneously. Spleens were harvested for RNA isolation at 3 and 24 h postinjection. Relative levels of RNA expression were measured for the immune-related genes: avian β defensin 10 (AvBD10), interleukin 6 (IL6), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interleukin 10 and transforming growth factor- β1 (TGF-β1). Avian β defensin 10 and iNOS are innate antimicrobial proteins. Interleukin 6 and IFN-γ are proinflammatory cytokines, whereas interleukin 10 and transforming growth factor-β1 are anti-inflammatory cytokines. There were significantly higher splenic levels of IL6, IFN-γ, iNOS, and IL10 RNA expression at 3 h postinjection in chickens receiving LPS than in chickens 24 h post-LPS injection or saline-injected birds at either time. These data suggest that LPS induced an immune response that was regulated by both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Birds fed natural-type (versus synthetic) vitamin E had a significantly lower LPS-induced inflammatory response, as indicated by lower IL6 RNA expression levels, suggesting a protective effect from natural-type vitamin E when a chicken encounters a bacterial component. © 2012 Poultry Science Association Inc.


Ileleji K.E.,Purdue University | Li Y.,Purdue University | Ambrose R.P.K.,Purdue University | Doane P.H.,ADM Research
Powder Technology | Year: 2016

Biofeedstocks such as corn coproducts or biomass such as corn stover are typically densified in a dry process using pellet mills to enhance transportability and use as livestock feed. Our work presents data of an experimental study using a non-traditional means, wet granulation with a lab-scale rotary drum granulator to determine key parameters that affect granule properties and yield of desirable sized granules. Granules were manufactured from corn stover and two liquid coproducts from corn bioprocessing, corn steep liquor (CSL) and corn molasses (CM) by varying corn stover particle size, corn stover:coproduct blend ratio and granulation residence time. The results showed that different formulation and processing parameters affected corn stover granulation. Granulation with an initial particle size of 0.88-0.96. mm (from screen size 6.4. mm), low liquid level (1:4) with CM, and short residence time (0.5. min) could be used to produce desirable sized granules (1.78 to 7.87. mm) for ruminant livestock feed with yields of over 98%. The effect of initial particle size of corn stover particles on density of granular products was significant. Corn stover particle size also positively influenced the granule size and negatively influenced yield of desirable granules. While increased coproduct (CM and CSL) levels in the blend increased the granule particle size and density, yield of desirable granules was reduced. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Horn M.,Purdue University | Gunn P.,Purdue University | van Emon M.,Purdue University | Lemenager R.,Purdue University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2010

The objective was to determine the effects of natural- or synthetic-source vitamin E on reproductive efficiency in Angus-cross beef cows. In Exp. 1, one hundred fifty-two cows were fed hay and corn silage based diet and assigned to 1 of 3 dietary supplements (3 pens/treatment): 1) containing no additional vitamin E (CON), 2) formulated to provide 1,000 IU-d-1 of synthetic-source vitamin E (SYN; all-rac or DL-α-tocopherol acetate), or 3) formulated to provide 1,000 IU-d1 of natural-source vitamin E (NAT; RRR or D-α-tocopherol acetate). In Exp. 2, seventy-five cows (2 reps/treatment) were assigned to similar treatments as Exp. 1; however, a vitamin-mineral supplement was offered for ad libitum intake and vitamin intake was calculated from predicted mineral intakes. Cows grazed pastures rather than being fed hay and corn silage as in Exp. 1. In Exp. 1 and 2, supplementation began 6 wk prepartum and continued until initiation of the breeding season. Blood samples were collected at calving (Exp. 1) or breeding (Exp. 2) to determine α-tocopherol concentration and weekly beginning 4 wk postpartum (Exp. 1) or 7 and 14 d before estrus synchronization (Exp. 2) to determine return to estrus via progesterone concentration. Cows were synchronized and bred by AI based on heat detection; nonresponding cows were time bred (AI) 66 h after PGF2a injection, and cows returning to estrus after AI were bred by natural service. In Exp. 1, cows supplemented with NAT and SYN had greater (P < 0.001) serum concentrations of α-tocopherol at calving compared with CON cows. Dietary supplement did not affect (P > 0.55) the percentage of cows cycling before synchronization or the number of days to return to estrus by cows that resumed estrus before synchronization. Cows supplemented with SYN tended to have greater first service conception rates compared with CON and NAT (P = 0.09); however, first plus second services combined and overall conception rates were not affected (P > 0.23). In Exp. 2, NAT cows had greater (P = 0.002) concentrations of a-tocopherol at breeding, whereas there was no difference (P > 0.05) between SYN and CON. Supplementation of SYN or NAT did not affect (P > 0.17) days to resumption of estrus before breeding, first service, first plus second services combined, or overall conception rates. These data suggest that supplementation of SYN or NAT source vitamin E increased α-tocopherol concentration in cows; however, effects on reproductive efficiency are minimal. © 2010 American Society of Animal Science.


PubMed | ADM Research, University of Wisconsin - Madison and U.S. Department of Agriculture
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of dairy science | Year: 2016

Alkaline treatment of gramineous crop residues can convert an abundant, minimally utilized, poorly digestible straw into a moderately digestible feedstuff. Given the volatile nature of grain prices, substitution of treated stover for grain was investigated with dairy cows to provide insights on ruminal and digestibility effects of a feed option that makes use of alternative, available resources. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in diet digestibility and ruminal effects when increasing levels of calcium oxide-treated corn stover (CaOSt) were substituted for corn grain in diets of lactating cows. Mature corn stover was treated with calcium oxide at a level of 50gkg(-1) dry matter (DM), brought up to a moisture content of 50% following bale grinding, and stored anaerobically at ambient temperatures for greater than 60d before the feeding experiment. Eight ruminally cannulated Holstein cows averaging 686kg of body weight and 35kg of milkd(-1) were enrolled in a replicated 44 Latin square, where CaOSt replaced corn grain on a DM basis in the ration at rates of 0, 40, 80, and 120gkg(-1) DM. All reported significant responses were linear. The DM intake declined by approximately 1kg per 4% increase in CaOSt inclusion. With increasing replacement of corn grain, dietary neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentration increased. However, rumen NDF turnover, NDF digestibility, NDF passage rate, and digestion rate of potentially digestible NDF were unaffected by increasing CaOSt inclusion. Total-tract organic matter digestibility declined by 5 percentage units over the range of treatments, approximately 1.5 units per 4-percentage-unit substitution of CaOSt for grain. With increasing CaOSt, the molar proportions of butyrate and valerate declined, whereas the lowest detected ruminal pH increased from 5.83 to 5.94. Milk, fat, and protein yields declined as CaOSt increased and DM intake declined with the result that net energy in milk declined by approximately 1 Mcal per 4% increase in CaOSt. Time spent ruminating (minkg(-1) DM intake) increased with increasing CaOSt, though total minutes per day were unaffected. These insights on the effect of substitution of treated corn stover for corn grain may be used to predict the effect on nutrient supply to the cow over a range of substitution levels. The acceptability of the effect will depend on the economics of milk production and availabilities of feedstuffs.


PubMed | Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, ADM Research and University of Rzeszow
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Acta biochimica Polonica | Year: 2016

Increase in the production of 1st generation ethanol from glucose is possible by the reduction in the production of ethanol co-products, especially biomass. We have developed a method to reduce biomass accumulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by the manipulation of the intracellular ATP level due to overexpression of genes of alkaline phosphatase, apyrase or enzymes involved in futile cycles. The strains constructed accumulated up to 10% more ethanol on a cornmeal hydrolysate medium. Similar increase in ethanol accumulation was observed in the mutants resistant to the toxic inhibitors of glycolysis like 3-bromopyruvate and others. Substantial increase in fuel ethanol production will be obtained by the development of new strains of yeasts that ferment sugars of the abundant lignocellulosic feedstocks, especially xylose, a pentose sugar. We have found that xylose can be fermented under elevated temperatures by the thermotolerant yeast, Hansenula polymorpha. We combined protein engineering of the gene coding for xylose reductase (XYL1) along with overexpression of the other two genes responsible for xylose metabolism in yeast (XYL2, XYL3) and the deletion of the global transcriptional activator CAT8, with the selection of mutants defective in utilizing ethanol as a carbon source using the anticancer drug, 3-bromopyruvate. Resulted strains accumulated 20-25 times more ethanol from xylose at the elevated temperature of 45C with up to 12.5 g L(-1) produced. Increase in ethanol yield and productivity from xylose was also achieved by overexpression of genes coding for the peroxisomal enzymes: transketolase (DAS1) and transaldolase (TAL2), and deletion of the ATG13 gene.


PubMed | ADM Research, Purdue University and U.S. Department of Agriculture
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of dairy science | Year: 2015

Volatile fatty acid concentrations ([VFA], mM) have long been used to assess the effect of dietary treatments on ruminal fermentation in vivo. However, discrepancies in statistical results between [VFA] and VFA pool size (VFAmol) possibly related to ruminal digesta liquid amount (LIQ, kg) indicate potential issues with the use of [VFA]. We investigated relationships among [VFA], VFAmol, and LIQ measured 2 h postfeeding using individual lactating cow data (n=175) from 7 separate feeding studies. Regression analyses were performed using mixed models with study as a discrete random variable. The mean across studies and average range of values within studies, respectively, were 151 and 75 for [VFA], 11.2 and 9.8 for VFAmol, 73.3 and 41.0 for LIQ, and 289 and 83 mmol/kg for rumen fluid osmolality. Liquid amount changed with VFAmol (3.76 VFAmol+31.2; average within-study R2=0.69), but the relationship was weak between [VFA] and LIQ (0.524 LIQ+112.8; average within-study R2=0.12). The relationship between LIQ and VFAmol was likely a function of the osmotic gradient between rumen liquid and blood. The VFA are a major ruminal solute; VFAmol amounts can affect water flux in the rumen as similar tonicities of rumen fluid and blood are maintained. This also has a damping effect on ruminal solute concentration, creating the weak relationship between [VFA] and LIQ. Within studies, similar [VFA] were found in LIQ differing by 30 kg or more. The difference between minimum and maximum LIQ within cow within study was 12.7 kg (standard deviation=7.1), so inclusion of cow in analyses did not correct for the variation in LIQ. To allow valid comparisons of experimental treatments, responses must be on an equivalent basis; concentrations in different LIQ are not on an equivalent basis and so are not valid to use for comparing treatment effects. The [VFA] changed with VFAmol (5.80 VFAmol+86.3; average within-study R2=0.56). However, the ratio of [VFA] to VFAmol ranged from 9.0 to 24.1 as a function of 1,000/LIQ; this reflects the inherent calculated relationship among the variables. The varying relationship of [VFA] to VFAmol further indicates that [VFA] is not an appropriate measure to evaluate the progress or effect of treatments on ruminal fermentation. Predictions of LIQ and VFAmol using cow and ruminal measures were insufficiently precise to be used in research. Previously drawn conclusions based on [VFA] need to be reevaluated, and alternate evaluations for in vivo ruminal fermentation are needed.

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