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Neuhofer A.,Medical University of Vienna | Neuhofer A.,Christian Doppler Laboratory | Zeyda M.,Medical University of Vienna | Zeyda M.,Christian Doppler Laboratory | And 15 more authors.
Diabetes | Year: 2013

Obesity-induced chronic low-grade inflammation originates from adipose tissue and is crucial for obesity-driven metabolic deterioration, including insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Chronic inflammation may be a consequence of a failure to actively resolve inflammation and could result from a lack of local specialized proresolving lipid mediators (SPMs), such as resolvins and protectins, which derive from the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). We assessed obesity-induced changes of n-3-derived SPMs in adipose tissue and the effects of dietary EPA/DHA thereon. Moreover, we treated obese mice with SPM precursors and investigated the effects on inflammation and metabolic dysregulation. Obesity significantly decreased DHA-derived 17-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (17-HDHA, resolvin D1 precursor) and protectin D1 (PD1) levels in murine adipose tissue. Dietary EPA/DHA treatment restored endogenous biosynthesis of n-3-derived lipid mediators in obesity while attenuating adipose tissue inflammation and improving insulin sensitivity. Notably, 17-HDHA treatment reduced adipose tissue expression of inflammatory cytokines, increased adiponectin expression, and improved glucose tolerance parallel to insulin sensitivity in obese mice. These findings indicate that impaired biosynthesis of certain SPM and SPM precursors, including 17-HDHA and PD1, contributes to adipose tissue inflammation in obesity and suggest 17-HDHA as a novel treatment option for obesity-associated complications. © 2013 by the American Diabetes Association. Source

Cinti S.,Marche Polytechnic University | Cinti S.,Adipose Organ Laboratory
DMM Disease Models and Mechanisms | Year: 2012

The main parenchymal cells of the adipose organ are adipocytes. White adipocytes store energy, whereas brown adipocytes dissipate energy for thermogenesis. These two cell types with opposing functions can both originate from endothelial cells, and co-exist in the multiple fat depots of the adipose organ - a feature that I propose is crucial for this organ's plasticity. This poster review provides an overview of the adipose organ, describing its anatomy, cytology, physiological function and histopathology in obesity. It also highlights the remarkable plasticity of the adipose organ, explaining theories of adipocyte transdifferentiation during chronic cold exposure, physical exercise or lactation, as well as in obesity. White-to-brown adipocyte transdifferentiation is of particular medical relevance, because animal data indicate that higher amounts of brown adipose tissue are positively associated with resistance to obesity and its co-morbidities, and that 'browning' of the adipose organ curbs these disorders. © 2012. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd. Source

Vernochet C.,Harvard University | Mourier A.,Max Planck Institute for Biology of Ageing | Bezy O.,Harvard University | Bezy O.,Pfizer | And 16 more authors.
Cell Metabolism | Year: 2012

Obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in adipose tissue, but the role for adipose tissue mitochondria in the development of these disorders is currently unknown. To understand the impact of adipose tissue mitochondria on whole-body metabolism, we have generated a mouse model with disruption of the mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) specifically in fat. F-TFKO adipose tissue exhibit decreased mtDNA copy number, altered levels of proteins of the electron transport chain, and perturbed mitochondrial function with decreased complex I activity and greater oxygen consumption and uncoupling. As a result, F-TFKO mice exhibit higher energy expenditure and are protected from age- and diet-induced obesity, insulin resistance, and hepatosteatosis, despite a greater food intake. Thus, TFAM deletion in the adipose tissue increases mitochondrial oxidation that has positive metabolic effects, suggesting that regulation of adipose tissue mitochondria may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source

Tran K.-V.,University of Massachusetts Medical School | Gealekman O.,University of Massachusetts Medical School | Frontini A.,Marche Polytechnic University | Zingaretti M.C.,Marche Polytechnic University | And 9 more authors.
Cell Metabolism | Year: 2012

Adipose tissue expansion involves the enlargement of existing adipocytes, the formation of new cells from committed preadipocytes, and the coordinated development of the tissue vascular network. Here we find that murine endothelial cells (ECs) of classic white and brown fat depots share ultrastructural characteristics with pericytes, which are pluripotent and can potentially give rise to preadipocytes. Lineage tracing experiments using the VE-cadherin promoter reveal localization of reporter genes in ECs and also in preadipocytes and adipocytes of white and brown fat depots. Furthermore, capillary sprouts from human adipose tissue, which have predominantly EC characteristics, are found to express Zfp423, a recently identified marker of preadipocyte determination. In response to PPARγ activation, endothelial characteristics of sprouting cells are progressively lost, and cells form structurally and biochemically defined adipocytes. Together these data support an endothelial origin of murine and human adipocytes, suggesting a model for how adipogenesis and angiogenesis are coordinated during adipose tissue expansion. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source

Vitali A.,Marche Polytechnic University | Murano I.,Marche Polytechnic University | Zingaretti M.C.,Marche Polytechnic University | Frontini A.,Marche Polytechnic University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Lipid Research | Year: 2012

White and brown adipocytes are believed to occupy different sites in the body. We studied the anatomical features and quantitative histology of the fat depots in obesity and type 2 diabetes-prone C57BL/6J mice acclimated to warm or cold temperatures. Most of the fat tissue was contained in depots with discrete anatomical features, and most depots contained both white and brown adipocytes. Quantitative analysis showed that cold acclimation induced an increase in brown adipocytes and an almost equal reduction in white adipocytes; however, there were no significant differences in total adipocyte count or any signs of apoptosis or mitosis, in line with the hypothesis of the direct transformation of white into brown adipocytes. The brown adipocyte increase was accompanied by enhanced density of noradrenergic parenchymal nerve fibers, with a significant correlation between the density of these fibers and the number of brown adipocytes. Comparison with data from obesity-resistant Sv129 mice disclosed a significantly different brown adipocyte content in C57BL/6J mice, suggesting that this feature could underpin the propensity of the latter strain to develop obesity. However, the greater C57BL/6J browning capacity can hopefully be harnessed to curb obesity and type 2 diabetes in patients with constitutively low amounts of brown adipose tissue. Copyright © 2012 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. Source

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