AdipoGen Inc.

Yeonsu gu, South Korea

AdipoGen Inc.

Yeonsu gu, South Korea
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Hwang S.Y.,Korea University | Lee K.W.,Ajou University | Nam M.S.,Inha University | Park Y.S.,Hanyang University | And 3 more authors.
Diabetes | Year: 2012

Recent studies have suggested that a novel adipokine, C1q/tumor necrosis factor-related protein-3 (CTRP-3), a paralog of adiponectin, may play an important role in the regulation of glucose metabolism and innate immunity. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), a multifunctional protein with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, is associated with insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. We examined circulating CTRP-3 and PEDF concentrations in 345 subjects with diverse glucose tolerance statuses. Furthermore, we evaluated the involvement of CTRP-3 and PEDF with cardiometabolic risk factors including insulin resistance, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). CTRP-3 concentrations were significantly higher in patients with type 2 diabetes or prediabetes than the normal glucose tolerance group, whereas PEDF levels were not different. Subjects with metabolic syndrome showed significantly higher levels of both CTRP-3 and PEDF compared with subjects without metabolic syndrome. Both CTRP-3 and PEDF were significantly associated with cardiometabolic parameters, including waist-to-hip ratio, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, eGFR, hsCRP, and baPWV. In conclusion, circulating CTRP-3 concentrations were elevated in patients with glucose metabolism dysregulation. Both CTRP-3 and PEDF concentrations were increased in subjects with metabolic syndrome and associated with various cardiometabolic risk factors. © 2012 by the American Diabetes Association.

Park J.-W.,Korea University | Saravan Kallempudi S.,Sabanci University | Niazi J.H.,Sabanci University | Gurbuz Y.,Sabanci University | And 2 more authors.
Biosensors and Bioelectronics | Year: 2012

A single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) aptamer was successfully developed to specifically bind to nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase (Nampt) through systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) and successfully implemented in a gold-interdigitated (GID) capacitor-based biosensor. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis of the aptamer revealed high specificity and affinity (Kd=72.52nM). Changes in surface capacitance/charge distribution or dielectric properties in the response of the GID capacitor surface covalently coupled to the aptamers in response to changes in applied AC frequency were measured as a sensing signal based on a specific interaction between the aptamers and Nampt. The limit of detection for Nampt was 1ng/ml with a dynamic serum detection range of up to 50ng/ml; this range includes the clinical requirement for both normal Nampt level, which is 15.8ng/ml, and Nampt level in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients, which is 31.9ng/ml. Additionally, the binding kinetics of aptamer-Nampt interactions on the capacitor surface showed that strong binding occurred with increasing frequency (range, 700MHz-1GHz) and that the dissociation constant of the aptamer under the applied frequency was improved 120-240 times (Kd=0.3-0.6nM) independent on frequency. This assay system is an alternative approach for clinical detection of Nampt with improved specificity and affinity. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Park M.,York University | Park M.,Institute Pasteur Korea | Youn B.,AdipoGen Inc. | Zheng X.-L.,University of Calgary | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Cardiomyocyte apoptosis is an important remodeling event contributing to heart failure and adiponectin may mediate cardioprotective effects at least in part via attenuating apoptosis. Here we used hypoxia-reoxygenation (H/R) induced apoptosis in H9c2 cells to examine the effect of adiponectin and cellular mechanisms of action. We first used TUNEL labeling in combination with laser scanning cytometry to demonstrate that adiponectin prevented H/R-induced DNA fragmentation. The anti-apoptotic effect of adiponectin was also verified via attenuation of H/R-induced phosphatidylserine exposure using annexin V binding. H/R-induced apoptosis via the mitochondrial-mediated intrinsic pathway of apoptosis as assessed by cytochrome c release into cytosol and caspase-3 activation, both of which were attenuated by adiponectin. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that adiponectin enhanced anti-oxidative potential in these cells which led to attenuation of the increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused by H/R. To further address the mechanism of adiponctins anti-apoptotic effects we used siRNA to efficiently knockdown adiponectin receptor (AdipoR1) expression and found that this attenuated the protective effects of adiponectin on ROS production and caspase 3 activity. Knockdown of APPL1, an important intracellular binding partner for AdipoR, also significantly reduced the ability of adiponectin to prevent H/R-induced ROS generation and caspase 3 activity. In summary, H/R-induced ROS generation and activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway was prevented by adiponectin via AdipoR1/APPL1 signaling and increased anti-oxidant potential. © 2011 Park et al.

Kim H.-K.,University of Ulsan | Youn B.-S.,AdipoGen Inc. | Shin M.-S.,Asan Medical Center | Namkoong C.,University of Ulsan | And 7 more authors.
Diabetes | Year: 2010

OBJECTIVE - The angiopoietin-like protein 4 (Angptl4)/fasting-induced adipose factor (Fiaf) is known as a regulator of peripheral lipid and glucose metabolism. In the present study, we investigated the physiological role of Angptl4 in central regulation of body weight homeostasis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - Hypothalamic Angptl4 expression levels were measured using immunoblot assay during feeding manipulation or after administration of leptin, insulin, and nutrients. The effects of Angptl4 on food intake, body weight, and energy expenditure were determined following intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of Angptl4 in C57BL/6 mice. Food intake, energy metabolism, and feeding responses to leptin, insulin, and nutrients were compared between Angptl4-null mice and their wild littermates. Finally, the relationship of hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and Angptl4 was studied. RESULTS - Hypothalamic Angptl4 expression levels were increased upon food intake or administration of leptin, insulin, and nutrients. Furthermore, central administration of Angptl4 suppressed food intake and body weight gain but enhanced energy expenditure. These effects were mediated via suppression of hypothalamic AMPK activities. Consistently, Angptl4-null mice displayed increased body weight and hypothalamic AMPK activity but reduced energy expenditure. Food intake following a fast was significantly greater in Angptl4-null mice, which was normalized by centrally administered Angptl4. Moreover, anorectic responses to leptin, insulin, and glucose were diminished in Angptl4-null mice. In contrast, Angptl4-null mice were resistant to diet-induced obesity, indicating obesity-promoting effects of Angptl4 under the condition of fat-enriched diet. CONCLUSIONS - We have demonstrated that hypothalamic Angptl4 is regulated by physiological appetite regulators and mediates their anorexigenic effects via inhibition of hypothalamic AMPK activity. Therefore, Angptl4 appears to have an important role in central regulation of energy metabolism. © 2010 by the American Diabetes Association.

Choi H.Y.,Korea University | Park J.W.,AdipoGen Inc. | Lee N.,AdipoGen Inc. | Hwang S.Y.,Korea University | And 9 more authors.
Diabetes Care | Year: 2013

Objective-To examine the effect of a combined exercise program on C1q/tumor necrosis factor-related protein (CTRP) 3 and CTRP-5 levels and novel adiponectin paralogs suggested to be links between metabolism and inflammation and to evaluate sex differences and association with cardiometabolic risk factors in humans with use of a newly developed ELISA. RESEARCH DESIGN ANDMETHODSdThis cross-sectional study explored the implications of CTRP-3 and CTRP-5 on cardiometabolic parameters in 453 nondiabetic Korean adults. In addition, we evaluated the impact of a 3-month combined exercise program on CTRP-3 and CTRP-5 levels in 76 obese women. The exercise program consisted of 45 min of aerobic exercise at an intensity of 60-75% of the age-predicted maximum heart rate (300 kcal/session) and 20 min of resistance training (100 kcal/session) five times per week. Results-Both CTRP-3 and CTRP-5 concentrations were significantly higher in women (P , 0.001) than in men (P = 0.030). In a multiple stepwise regression analysis, CTRP-3 levels were independently associated with age, sex, and triglyceride, LDL cholesterol, adiponectin, and retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) levels (R2 = 0.182). After 3 months of a combined exercise program, cardiometabolic risk factors, including components of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and RBP4 levels, decreased significantly. In particular, CTRP-3 levels decreased significantly (median [interquartile range] 444.3 [373.8-535.0] to 374.4 [297.2-435.9], P < 0.001), whereas CTRP-5 levels were slightly increased (34.1 [28.6-44.3] to 38.4 [29.8-55.1], P = 0.048). Conclusions-A 3-month combined exercise program significantly decreased CTRP-3 levels and modestly increased CTRP-5 levels in obese Korean women. © 2013 by the American Diabetes Association.

Choi K.M.,Korea University | Hwang S.Y.,Korea University | Hong H.C.,Korea University | Choi H.Y.,Korea University | And 4 more authors.
Cardiovascular Diabetology | Year: 2014

Background: C1q/TNF-related protein-3 (CTRP-3), an adiponectin paralog, and progranulin were recently identified as novel adipokines which may link obesity with glucose dysregulation and subclinical inflammation. We analyzed the relationship between CTRP-3, progranulin and coronary artery disease (CAD) in Korean men and women. Methods: Circulating CTRP-3 and progranulin levels were examined in 362 Korean adults with acute coronary syndrome (ACS, n = 69), stable angina pectoris (SAP, n = 85), and control subjects (n = 208) along with various kinds of cardiometabolic risk factors. Results: CTRP-3 concentrations were significantly decreased in patients with ACS or SAP compared to control subjects (P <0.001, respectively), whereas progranulin and adiponectin levels were similar. Correlation analysis adjusted for age and gender exhibited that CTRP-3 levels showed significant negative relationship with glucose (r = -0.110, P = 0.041) and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels (r = -0.159, P = 0.005), and positive relationship with HDL-cholesterol (r = 0.122, P = 0.025) and adiponectin levels (r = 0.194, P <0.001). In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio for CAD risk was 5.14 (95% CI, 1.83-14.42) in the second, and 9.04 (95% CI, 2.81-29.14) in the first tertile of CTRP-3 levels compared to third tertile after adjusting for other cardiometabolic risk variables. Conclusions: Patients with ACS or SAP had significantly lower circulating CTRP-3 concentrations compared to control subjects, although progranulin levels were not different. These results suggest the possibility that CTRP-3 might be useful for assessing the risk of CAD.Trial registration: (Clinical trials No.: NCT01594710). © 2014 Choi et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Jung T.W.,Korea University | Youn B.-S.,AdipoGen Inc. | Choi H.Y.,Korea University | Lee S.Y.,Korea University | And 6 more authors.
Biochemical Pharmacology | Year: 2013

Fetuin-A was recently identified as a novel hepatokine which is associated with obesity, insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Salsalate, a prodrug of salicylate with an anti-inflammatory effect and lower side effect profile, significantly lowers glucose and triglyceride levels, and increased adiponectin concentrations in randomized clinical trials. In this study, we examined the effects and regulatory mechanisms of salsalate and full length-adiponectin (fAd) on fetuin-A expression, steatosis and lipid metabolism in palmitate-treated HepG2 cells. Incubation of hepatocytes with palmitate significantly increased fetuin-A and SREBP-1c expression which lead to steatosis and knock-down of fetuin-A by siRNA restored these changes. Salsalate significantly down-regulated palmitate-induced fetuin-A mRNA expression and secretion in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Inhibition of palmitate-induced fetuin-A by salsalate was mediated by AMPK-mediated reduction of NFκB activity, which was blocked by AMPK siRNA or an inhibitor of AMPK. Salsalate attenuated the excessive steatosis by palmitate through SREBP-1c regulation in hepatocytes. Furthermore, fAd also showed suppression of palmitate-induced fetuin-A through the AMPK pathway and improvement of steatosis accompanied by restoration of SREBP-1c, PAPR-α and CD36. In preliminary in vivo experiments, salsalate treatment inhibited high fat diet (HFD)-induced steatosis as well as fetuin-A mRNA and protein expression in SD rats. In conclusion, salsalate and fAd improved palmitate-induced steatosis and impairment of lipid metabolism in hepatocytes via fetuin-A inhibition through the AMPK-NFκB pathway. AbbreviationsNAFLDnon-alcoholic fatty liver diseaseAMPKadenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinaseNF-κBnuclear factor-κBfAdfull- length adiponectinHFDhigh fat dietEMSAelectrophoretic mobility-shift assayChIPchromatin immunoprecipitation assay. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

Yoo H.J.,Korea University | Hwang S.Y.,Korea University | Hong H.C.,Korea University | Choi H.Y.,Korea University | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Objective: Progranulin and C1q/TNF-related protein-3 (CTRP3) were recently discovered as novel adipokines which may link obesity with altered regulation of glucose metabolism, chronic inflammation and insulin resistance. Research Design and Methods: We examined circulating progranulin and CTRP3 concentrations in 127 subjects with (n = 44) or without metabolic syndrome (n = 83). Furthermore, we evaluated the relationship of progranulin and CTRP3 levels with inflammatory markers and cardiometabolic risk factors, including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and adiponectin serum concentrations, as well as carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT). Results: Circulating progranulin levels are significantly related with inflammatory markers, hsCRP (r = 0.30, P = 0.001) and IL-6 (r = 0.30, P = 0.001), whereas CTRP3 concentrations exhibit a significant association with cardiometabolic risk factors, including waist circumference (r = -0.21), diastolic blood pressure (r = -0.21), fasting glucose (r = -0.20), triglyceride (r = -0.34), total cholesterol (r = -0.25), eGFR (r = 0.39) and adiponectin (r = 0.26) levels. Serum progranulin concentrations were higher in patients with metabolic syndrome than those of the control group (199.55 [179.33, 215.53] vs. 185.10 [160.30, 204.90], P = 0.051) and the number of metabolic syndrome components had a significant positive correlation with progranulin levels (r = 0.227, P = 0.010). In multiple regression analysis, IL-6 and triglyceride levels were significant predictors of serum progranulin levels (R2 = 0.251). Furthermore, serum progranulin level was an independent predictor for increased CIMT in subjects without metabolic syndrome after adjusting for other cardiovascular risk factors (R2 = 0.365). Conclusions: Serum progranulin levels are significantly associated with systemic inflammatory markers and were an independent predictor for atherosclerosis in subjects without metabolic syndrome. Trial Registration: NCT01668888. © 2013 Yoo et al.

Choi H.Y.,Korea University | Kim S.,Korea University | Park J.W.,AdipoGen Inc | Lee N.S.,AdipoGen Inc | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2014

Context: Irisin is an exercise-induced novel myokine that drives brown-fat-like conversion of white adipose tissue and has been suggested to be a promising target for the treatment of obesity-related metabolic disorders. Objective: To assess the association of circulating irisin concentrations with brown adipose tissue (BAT) and/or sarcopenia in humans. SettingandDesign: Weexaminedirisin levels in40BAT-positiveand40BAT-negativewomendetected by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18FDG-PET). In a separate study, we also examined 401 subjects with or without sarcopenia defined by skeletal muscle mass index (SMMI) and appendicular skeletal muscle (ASM)/height2 using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Results:Among6877 consecutive 18FDG-PET scans in 4736 subjects, 146 subjects (3.1%) had positive BAT scans. The BAT-detectable group and the matched BAT-undetectable group did not differ in circulating irisin levels measured using two different ELISA kits (P=.747 and P=.160, respectively). Serum irisin levels were not different between individuals with sarcopenia and those without sarcopenia using either kit (P = .305 and P = .569, respectively). Also, serum irisin levels were not different between groups defined by ASM/height2 using either kit (P = .352 and P = .134, respectively). Although visceral fat area and skeletal muscle mass showed significant difference according to tertiles of SMMI levels, irisin concentrations did not differ. Conclusions: Circulating irisin levels were not different in individuals with detectable BAT or those with sarcopenia compared with control subjects and were not correlated with SMMI. Copyright © 2014 by the Endocrine Society.

Broxmeyer H.E.,Indiana University | Srour E.F.,Indiana University | Srour E.F.,AdipoGen Inc. | Cooper S.,Indiana University | And 3 more authors.
Blood Cells, Molecules, and Diseases | Year: 2012

Several angiopoietin-like (ANGPTL) molecules have been implicated in enhancement of ex-vivo expansion of murine and human (hu) hematopoietic stem cells, but there are no reports on hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs). We assessed purified recombinant endotoxin-free hu ANGPTL-2 Coiled-Coil (CC), -3, -3CC, -3 fibrinogen-like domain (FLD), -4, -4CC, -5CC, -6 and -7 for effects on proliferation and survival of HPCs from hu cord blood (CB). None of the ANGPTL molecules stimulated CB HPC proliferation, or enhanced or inhibited colony formation of CB HPC stimulated by various growth factors. However, ANGPTL-2CC, -3, and -3CC significantly enhanced survival of HPC (CFU-GM, BFU-E, CFU-GEMM) subjected to delayed addition of growth factors. Survival enhancing effects of ANGPTL-3 were neutralized by purified anti-ANGPTL-3, but not by anti-ANGPTL-4, -6, or -7. ANGPTL-2CC, -3, and -3CC, but not -4, -6, or -7 also enhanced replating capacity of single CB CFU-GEMM colonies, an estimate of the self-renewal capabilities of HPCs, by greater than 2 fold. Effects of at least ANGPTL-3CC may in part be mediated through phosphorylation of ERK. The ANGPTL molecules did not influence ex-vivo expansion of hu CB CD34+ cells, alone, or in combination with SCF, TPO, Flt3-ligand, with or without IL-3. Thus, among ANGPTL family members, ANGPTL-2 and -3 had enhancing activities on human HPC survival and replating activity, effects requiring the CC domain of the ANGPTL molecules. This information is of relevance to hu HPC regulation. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

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