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Taichung, Taiwan

Wu P.-R.,National Health Research Institute | Wu P.-R.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Chen B.-R.,National Health Research Institute | Chen B.-R.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | And 9 more authors.
Bioscience Reports | Year: 2014

NO production catalysed by eNOS (endothelial nitric-oxide synthase) plays an important role in the cardiovascular system. A variety of agonists activate eNOS through the Ser1177 phosphorylation concomitant with Thr 495 dephosphorylation, resulting in increased •NO production with a basal level of calcium. To date, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We have previously demonstrated that perturbation of the AIE (autoinhibitory element) in the FMN-binding subdomain can also lead to eNOS activation with a basal level of calcium, implying that the AIE might regulate eNOS activation through modulating phosphorylation at Thr495 and Ser1177. Here we generated stable clones in HEK-293 (human embryonic kidney 293) cells with a series of deletion mutants in both the AIE (Δ594-604, Δ605-612 and Δ626-634) and the C-terminal tail (Δ14; deletion of 1164-1177). The expression of Δ594-604 and Δ605-612 mutants in non-stimulated HEK-293 cells substantially increased nitrate/nitrite release into the culture medium; the other two mutants, Δ626-634 and Δ1164-1177, displayed no significant difference when compared with WTeNOS (wild-type eNOS). Intriguingly, mutant Δ594-604 showed close correlation between Ser1177 phosphorylation and Thr 495 dephosphorylation, and NO production. Our results have indicated that N-terminal portion of AIE (residues 594-604) regulates eNOS activity through coordinated phosphorylation on Ser1177 and Thr495. © 2014 The Author(s). Source

Wu C.-Y.,Adimmune Corporation | Lin Y.-W.,National Health Research Institute | Kuo C.-H.,Adimmune Corporation | Liu W.-H.,Adimmune Corporation | And 11 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Epidemics and outbreaks caused by infections of several subgenotypes of EV71 and other serotypes of coxsackie A viruses have raised serious public health concerns in the Asia- Pacific region. These concerns highlight the urgent need to develop a scalable manufacturing platform for producing an effective and sufficient quantity of vaccines against deadly enteroviruses. In this report, we present a platform for the large-scale production of a vaccine based on the inactivated EV71(E59-B4) virus. The viruses were produced in Vero cells in a 200 L bioreactor with serum-free medium, and the viral titer reached 107 TCID50/mL 10 days after infection when using an MOI of 10-4. The EV71 virus particles were harvested and purified by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Fractions containing viral particles were pooled based on ELISA and SDS-PAGE. TEM was used to characterize the morphologies of the viral particles. To evaluate the cross-protective efficacy of the EV71 vaccine, the pooled antigens were combined with squalene-based adjuvant (AddaVAX) or aluminum phosphate (AlPO4) and tested in human SCARB2 transgenic (Tg) mice. The Tg mice immunized with either the AddaVAX- or AlPO4-adjuvanted EV71 vaccine were fully protected from challenges by the subgenotype C2 and C4 viruses, and surviving animals did not show any degree of neurological paralysis symptoms or muscle damage. Vaccine treatments significantly reduced virus antigen presented in the central nervous system of Tg mice and alleviated the virus-associated inflammatory response. These results strongly suggest that this preparation results in an efficacious vaccine and that the microcarrier/bioreactor platform offers a superior alternative to the previously described roller-bottle system. Copyright: © 2015 Wu et al. Source

Chang Y.-T.,National Cheng Kung University | Guo C.-Y.,National Yang Ming University | Tsai M.-S.,Kuo General Hospital | Cheng Y.-Y.,National Cheng Kung University | And 5 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2012

Background: Hemodialysis patients have higher risk of mortality and morbidity when infected with 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1/09) virus. Depending on different methodologies and criteria, previous studies reported variable response rates to adjuvanted vaccines against pH1N1/09 virus in hemodialysis patients, however, the efficacy of non-adjuvanted vaccines, which are currently used in many countries such as the USA and Asian areas, has not been comprehensively evaluated in hemodialysis population before. Methods: We evaluated the efficacy of a standard single15. μg-dose of non-adjuvanted monovalent pH1N1/09 vaccine (AdimFlu-S) in vaccine-naïve 110 hemodialysis and 173 healthy participants. When enrolling, all participants had not any clinical symptom or sign suggesting pH1N1/09 infection since the index case was identified in Taiwan. Sera from all participants were tested by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and micro-neutralization-ELISA (microNT-ELISA) tests before and 21. days after vaccination. The outcome parameters were seroconversion rate (≥4-fold in HI titer with titer ≥1:40), seroprotection rate (HI titers ≥1:40), seroresponse rate (≥4-fold increase in HI or microNT-ELISA titer), fold of increase in geometric mean (GM) titers, and adverse effects. Results: In method A analyses, we included all participants' data in final analyses, and the seroconversion rates and the fold increase of GM titer after vaccination were 25.4% and 1.8 in adult (18-60-year olds) hemodialysis subgroup, and 23.4% and 1.8 in elder (>60-year olds) hemodialysis subgroup based on HI titers, which were all significantly lower than those of the corresponding healthy control subgroups. Similar trends were observed based on microNT-ELISA titers, further validating the results. Multivariable analysis revealed hemoglobin and cholesterol levels were significant predictors for seroresponse in hemodialysis patients, suggesting the possible impacts of nutrition status and anemia. In method B analyses, we excluded participants with pre-vaccination seroprotection (based on HI or microNT-ELISA criteria) in final analyses. The response rates in various subgroups from method B analyses were also similar as those from method A analyses. No severe adverse effect was noted. Conclusions: According to the European and U.S. criteria, a single 15. μg-dose of non-adjuvanted pH1N1/09 vaccination is safe but ineffective in both adult and elder hemodialysis patients. Further studies using multiple doses or higher antigen amount are warrant to define the most appropriate regimen. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Wu C.-Y.,Adimmune Corporation | Chang C.-Y.,Adimmune Corporation | Ma H.-H.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Wang C.-W.,Adimmune Corporation | And 6 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2014

Recent cases of avian influenza H7N9 have caused great concerns that virus may become transmittable between humans. It is imperative to develop an effective vaccine to fight against the pandemic potential of this H7N9 influenza virus to protect human from the disease. This study aims to investigate an optimized formulation for the development of H7N9 vaccines. Various doses of H7N9 inactivated whole or split-virus antigens (0.5, 1.5, or 3μg based on hemagglutinin content) combined with squalene-based adjuvant (AddaVAX), aluminum hydroxide Al(OH)3 or without adjuvant were evaluated for the efficacy of H7N9 vaccine regiments in mice. With either H7N9 whole or split-virus based vaccines, AddaVAX-adjuvanted formulations were the most immunogenic in eliciting significant humoral immune response against H7N9 virus and exhibited strong cross-reactive response in hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) and viral-neutralization assays against H7N7 virus as well. In contrast, formulations with Al(OH)3 or without adjuvant were less immunogenic and elicited lower titers of HAI and microneutralization assays against both viruses. Dose-sparing experiments suggested that the formulation with as low as 0.004μg of split or whole virus vaccine antigens together with 50% AddaVAX provided sufficient sero-protective HAI titers and achieved essential virus-neutralizing antibody titers against H7-subtype influenza viruses in mice. Protection experiments demonstrated that the formulation of 0.004μg to 0.5μg of split-virion vaccines with AddaVAX conferred full protection against viral challenge up to 100 LD50 of wild-type H7N9 virus, with 0% survival in placebo group. Taken together, our study demonstrates that squalene-based adjuvant can significantly enhance the protective efficacy of H7N9 virus vaccine and provides a useful strategy to confront the potential pandemic outbreaks of H7N9 virus. © 2014 The Authors. Source

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