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PubMed | KIST Medical College, Adichunchanagiri Biotechnology and Cancer Research Institute ABCRI and Dr Hari Singh Gour University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Saudi pharmaceutical journal : SPJ : the official publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society | Year: 2016

The aqueous extract of Mangifera indica is known to possess diverse medicinal properties, which also includes anti-snake venom activities. However, its inhibitory potency and mechanism of action on multi-toxic snake venom phospholipases A2s are still unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the modulatory effect of standard aqueous bark extract of M. indica on NN-XIb-PLA2 of Indian cobra venom. The in vitro sPLA2, in situ hemolytic and in vivo edema inhibition effect were carried out as described. Also the effect of substrate and calcium concentration was carried out. M. indica extract dose dependently inhibited the GIA sPLA2 (NN-XIb-PLA2) activity with an IC50 value of 7.6g/ml. M. indica extract effectively inhibited the indirect hemolytic activity up to 98% at 40g/ml concentration. Further, M. indica extract (0-50g/ml) inhibited the edema formed in a dose dependent manner. When examined as a function of increased substrate and calcium concentration, there was no relieve of inhibitory effect of M. indica extract on the NN-XIb-PLA2. Further, the inhibition was irreversible as evident from binding studies. The in vitro inhibition is well correlated with in situ and in vivo edema inhibiting activities of M. indica. As the inhibition is independent of substrate and calcium and was irreversible, it can be concluded that M. indica extract mode of inhibition could be due to direct interaction of components present in the extract with the PLA2 enzyme. The aqueous extract of M. indica effectively inhibits svPLA2 enzymatic and its associated toxic activities, which substantiate their anti-snake venom properties. Further in-depth studies on the role and mechanism of the principal constituents present in the extract, responsible for the anti-PLA2 activity will be interesting to develop them into potent antisnake component and also as an anti-inflammatory agent.


Sudharshan S.,Adichunchanagiri Biotechnology and Cancer Research Institute ABCRI | Dhananjaya B.L.,Adichunchanagiri Biotechnology and Cancer Research Institute ABCRI | Dhananjaya B.L.,Post University
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases | Year: 2015

Background: Microbial/bacterial resistance against antibiotics poses a serious threat to public health. Furthermore, the side effects of these antibiotics have stimulated tremendous interest in developing new molecules from diverse organisms as therapeutic agents. This study evaluates the antibacterial potential of a basic protein, Vipera russellii venom phospholipase A2 fraction VIIIa (VRV-PL-VIIIa), from Daboia russelii pulchella venom against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Methods: The antibacterial potential of VRV-PL-VIIIa in the presence and absence of an inhibitor (p-bromophenacyl bromide) was tested against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and the minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by microdilution tests. Results: VRV-PL-VIIIa demonstrated potent antibacterial activities against all the human pathogenic strains tested. It more effectively inhibited such gram-positive bacteria as Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, when compared to the gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella paratyphi. It inhibited bacterial growth at minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 11.1 to 19.2 μg/mL. The anti-bacterial potential of VRV-PL-VIIIa was comparable to the standards gentamycin, chlorophenicol and streptomycin. The PLA2's hemolytic and antibacterial activities were strongly correlated. Furthermore, even in the presence of p-bromophenacyl bromide, intense antibacterial activity was observed, suggesting a dissociation or partial overlapping of the bactericidal/antimicrobial domains. Conclusion: VRV-PL-VIIIa demonstrated potent antibacterial activities against all the human pathogenic strains tested. The study shows that despite a strong correlation between enzymatic and antimicrobial activities of VRV-PL-VIIIa, it may possess additional properties that mimic the bactericidal/membrane permeability-increasing protein. This study encourages further in-depth studies on the molecular mechanisms of antibacterial properties of VRV-PL-VIIIa, which would thereby facilitate development of this protein into a possible therapeutic lead molecule for treating bacterial infections. © 2015 Sudharshan and Dhananjaya.


Sudarshan S.,Adichunchanagiri Biotechnology and Cancer Research Institute ABCRI | Dhananjaya B.L.,Adichunchanagiri Biotechnology and Cancer Research Institute ABCRI | Dhananjaya B.L.,Global University
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology | Year: 2015

Microbial resistance against antibiotics is considered as a potentially serious threat to public health. Therefore, there is much interest in developing new molecules with novel modes of action. In this study, when antimicrobial potential of an acidic protein—NN-XIa-PLA2 (Naja naja venom phospholipase A2 fraction—XIa) of N. naja venom was evaluated, it demonstrated potent bactericidal action against the human pathogenic strains. It inhibited more significantly, the gram-positive bacteria, when compared to gram-negative bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranged from 17 to 20 μg/ml. It was interesting to observe that the NN-XIa-PLA2 showed comparable antibacterial activity to the standard antibiotics used. It was found that there was a strong correlation between phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activities, hemolytic, and antimicrobial activity. Further, it is found that in the presence of p-bromophenacyl bromide (p-BPB), there is a significant decrease in enzymatic activity and associated antimicrobial activities, suggesting that a strong correlation exists between catalytic activity and antimicrobial effects, which thereby destabilize the membrane bilayer. However, other mechanisms cannot be completely ruled out. Thus, these studies encourage further in-depth study on molecular mechanisms of antibacterial properties and thereby help in development of this protein into a possible therapeutic lead molecule for treating bacterial infections. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Dhananjaya B.L.,Adichunchanagiri Biotechnology and Cancer Research Institute ABCRI | Dhananjaya B.L.,Global University | Sudarshan S.,Adichunchanagiri Biotechnology and Cancer Research Institute ABCRI
Tropical Biomedicine | Year: 2015

The aqueous extract of Mangifera indica is known to possess anti-snake venom activities. However, its inhibitory potency and mechanism of action on multi-toxic phospholipases A2s, which are the most toxic and lethal component of snake venom is still unknown. Therefore, this study was carried out to evaluate the modulatory effect of standard aqueous bark extract of M. indica on VRV-PL-VIIIa of Indian Russells viper venom. Mangifera indica extract dose dependently inhibited the GIIB sPLA2 (VRV-PL-VIIIa) activity with an IC50 value of 6.8±0.3 μg/ml. M. indica extract effectively inhibited the indirect hemolytic activity up to 96% at ~40 μg/ml concentration. Further, M. indica extract at different concentrations (0-50 μg/ml) inhibited the edema formed in a dose dependent manner. It was found that there was no relieve of inhibitory effect of the extract when examined as a function of increased substrate and calcium concentration. The inhibition was irreversible as evident from binding studies. The in vitro inhibition is well correlated with in situ and in vivo edema inducing activities. As the inhibition is independent of substrate, calcium concentration and was irreversible, it can be concluded that M. indica extracts mode of inhibition could be due to direct interaction of components present in the extract with PLA2 enzyme. In conclusion, the aqueous extract of M. indica effectively inhibits svPLA2 (Snake venom phospholipase A2) enzymatic and its associated toxic activities, which substantiate its anti-snake venom properties. Further in-depth studies are interesting to known on the role and mechanism of the principal inhibitory constituents present in the extract, so as to develop them into potent anti-snake venom and as an anti-inflammatory agent. © 2015, Malaysian Society for Parasitology. All rights reserved.


Sudarshan S.,Adichunchanagiri Biotechnology and Cancer Research Institute ABCRI | Dhananjaya B.L.,Adichunchanagiri Biotechnology and Cancer Research Institute ABCRI | Dhananjaya B.L.,Jain University
Biochemistry (Moscow) | Year: 2014

Microbial/bacterial resistance against antibiotics is considered as a potentially serious threat to public health. Further, as these antibiotics elicit side effects, there is interest in developing new molecules with novel modes of action from diverse organisms. Along these lines, in this study the antibacterial potential of the basic protein VRV-PL-V (Vipera russellii venom phospholipase A2 fraction V) of Daboia russellii pulchella venom was evaluated. VRV-PL-V demonstrated a potent antibacterial activity against all the human pathogenic strains tested. It inhibited more effectively Gram-positive bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis when compared to Gram-negative bacteria like Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Salmonella paratyphi. It inhibited bacterial growth with MIC values ranging from 13 to 24 μg/ml. The antibacterial potential of VRV-PL-V was comparable to the standards used like gentamycin, chloramphenicol, and streptomycin. There was a strong correlation between PLA2 activities and hemolytic and antibacterial activity. It was found that even in the presence of p-bromophenacyl bromide (an inhibitor of PLA2 enzymatic activity), there was marked antibacterial activity, suggesting dissociation or partial overlapping of the bactericidal/antimicrobial domains. Therefore, this study shows that although there is a strong correlation between enzymatic and antimicrobial activities of VRV-PL-V, it may also possess other properties that mimic bactericidal/membrane permeability-increasing protein. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2014.


PubMed | Adichunchanagiri Biotechnology and Cancer Research Institute ABCRI
Type: | Journal: SpringerPlus | Year: 2016

The resistance of bacteria against the use of conventional antibiotics has become a serious threat to public health and considering the associated side effect with antibiotics; new strategies to find and develop new molecules with novel modes of action has received grate attention in recent years. In this study, when the antibacterial potential of an acidic protein-NN-XIb-PLA2 (Naja naja venom phospholipase A2 fraction-XIb) of Naja naja venom was evaluated, it showed significant bactericidal action against the human pathogenic strains tested. It inhibited more effectively the gram positive bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, when compared to gram negative bacteria like Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Klebsiell pneumoniae and Salmonella paratyphi. It inhibited the bacterial growth, with a MIC values ranging from 17 to 20g/ml. It was interesting to observe that NN-XIb-PLA2 showed comparable antibacterial activity to the used standards antibiotics. It was found that their was a strong correlation between PLA2 activities, hemolytic and antibacterial activity. Furthermore, it is found that in the presence of p-bromophenacyl bromide (p-BPB), there is a significant decrease in enzymatic activity and associated antibacterial activities, suggesting that a strong association exists between catalytic activity and antimicrobial effects, which thereby destabilize the membrane bilayer. These studies encourage further in dept study on molecular mechanisms of bactericidal properties of NN-XIb-PLA2 and thereby help in development of this protein into a possible therapeutic lead molecule for treating bacterial infections.


PubMed | Adichunchanagiri Biotechnology and Cancer Research Institute ABCRI
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Tropical biomedicine | Year: 2015

The aqueous extract of Mangifera indica is known to possess anti-snake venom activities. However, its inhibitory potency and mechanism of action on multi-toxic phospholipases A2s, which are the most toxic and lethal component of snake venom is still unknown. Therefore, this study was carried out to evaluate the modulatory effect of standard aqueous bark extract of M. indica on VRV-PL-VIIIa of Indian Russells viper venom. Mangifera indica extract dose dependently inhibited the GIIB sPLA2 (VRV-PL-VIIIa) activity with an IC50 value of 6.80.3 g/ml. M. indica extract effectively inhibited the indirect hemolytic activity up to 96% at ~40 g/ml concentration. Further, M. indica extract at different concentrations (0-50 g/ml) inhibited the edema formed in a dose dependent manner. It was found that there was no relieve of inhibitory effect of the extract when examined as a function of increased substrate and calcium concentration. The inhibition was irreversible as evident from binding studies. The in vitro inhibition is well correlated with in situ and in vivo edema inducing activities. As the inhibition is independent of substrate, calcium concentration and was irreversible, it can be concluded that M. indica extracts mode of inhibition could be due to direct interaction of components present in the extract with PLA2 enzyme. In conclusion, the aqueous extract of M. indica effectively inhibits svPLA2 (Snake venom phospholipase A2) enzymatic and its associated toxic activities, which substantiate its anti-snake venom properties. Further in-depth studies are interesting to known on the role and mechanism of the principal inhibitory constituents present in the extract, so as to develop them into potent anti-snake venom and as an anti-inflammatory agent.


PubMed | Adichunchanagiri Biotechnology and Cancer Research Institute ABCRI
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Applied biochemistry and biotechnology | Year: 2015

Microbial resistance against antibiotics is considered as a potentially serious threat to public health. Therefore, there is much interest in developing new molecules with novel modes of action. In this study, when antimicrobial potential of an acidic protein-NN-XIa-PLA2 (Naja naja venom phospholipase A2 fraction-XIa) of N. naja venom was evaluated, it demonstrated potent bactericidal action against the human pathogenic strains. It inhibited more significantly, the gram-positive bacteria, when compared to gram-negative bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranged from 17 to 20 g/ml. It was interesting to observe that the NN-XIa-PLA2 showed comparable antibacterial activity to the standard antibiotics used. It was found that there was a strong correlation between phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activities, hemolytic, and antimicrobial activity. Further, it is found that in the presence of p-bromophenacyl bromide (p-BPB), there is a significant decrease in enzymatic activity and associated antimicrobial activities, suggesting that a strong correlation exists between catalytic activity and antimicrobial effects, which thereby destabilize the membrane bilayer. However, other mechanisms cannot be completely ruled out. Thus, these studies encourage further in-depth study on molecular mechanisms of antibacterial properties and thereby help in development of this protein into a possible therapeutic lead molecule for treating bacterial infections.

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