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Porto Alegre, Brazil

Akutagava-Martins G.C.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Salatino-Oliveira A.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Genro J.P.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Contini V.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | And 11 more authors.
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics | Year: 2014

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder with a strong genetic component. The glutamate metabotropic receptor genes (GRMs) have been considered potential candidates for ADHD susceptibility. The aim of the present study was to investigate if copy number variants (CNVs) in GRM1, GRM5, and GRM8 genes are overrepresented in ADHD subjects. A total of 1038 individuals with ADHD and 1057 subjects without this disorder were investigated. No significant difference in the total number of CNVs was found comparing the entire ADHD sample and the population sample without ADHD (P=0.326, OR=1.112, 95% CI=0.762-1.624). The presence of CNVs was associated with lower intelligence quotient (IQ) scores in ADHD samples (P=0.026, OR=1.824, 95% CI=1.066-3.121) but not in the sample of individuals without ADHD. CNVs in GRM5 were associated with presence of anxiety disorders in ADHD cases (P=0.002, OR=3.915, 95% CI=1.631-9.402), but not in individuals without ADHD. Taken together, our results suggest a role for glutamate in ADHD as CNVs in the glutamatergic genes investigated herein were associated with cognitive and clinical characteristics of ADHD individuals. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source


Salatino-Oliveira A.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Akutagava-Martins G.C.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Bruxel E.M.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Genro J.P.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | And 15 more authors.
Journal of Psychiatric Research | Year: 2016

Several investigations documented that Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is better conceptualized as a dimensional disorder. At the same time, the disorder seems to have different neurobiological underpinnings and phenotypic presentation in children compared to adults. Neurodevelopmental genes could explain, at least partly these differences. The aim of the present study was to examine possible associations between polymorphisms in SNAP25, MAP1B and NOS1 genes and ADHD symptoms in Brazilian samples of children/adolescents and adults with ADHD. The youth sample consisted of 301 patients whereas the adult sample comprises 485 individuals with ADHD. Diagnoses of ADHD and comorbidities were based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-4th edition criteria. The Swanson, Nolan and Pelham Scale-Version IV (SNAP-IV) was applied by psychiatrists blinded to genotype. The total SNAP-IV scores were compared between genotypes. Impulsivity SNAP-IV scores were also compared according to NOS1 genotypes. Adult patients homozygous for the C allele at SNAP25 rs8636 showed significantly higher total SNAP-IV scores (F = 11.215; adjusted P-value = 0.004). Impulsivity SNAP-IV scores were also significantly different according to NOS1 rs478597 polymorphisms in adults with ADHD (F = 6.282; adjusted P-value = 0.026). These associations were not observed in children and adolescents with ADHD. These results suggest that SNAP25 and NOS1 genotypes influence ADHD symptoms only in adults with ADHD. Our study corroborates previous evidences for differences in the genetic contribution to adult ADHD compared with childhood ADHD. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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