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Ludhiāna, India

Barnwal P.,NDRI | Singh K.K.,ADG PE | Mohite A.,CIPHET | Sharma A.,CIPHET
Journal of Food Processing and Preservation | Year: 2015

Grinding characteristics of fenugreek (cv. AM-1) were carried out at cryogenic and ambient conditions. It was observed that it affected average particle size, volume surface mean diameter, mass mean diameter, volume mean diameter, specific surface of mixture, number of particles per gram, energy constants - Rittinger and Kick's - and specific energy consumption. Values of average particle size, volume surface mean diameter, mass mean diameter, volume mean diameter, specific surface of mixture, number of particles per gram, Rittinger's constant, Kick's constant and specific energy consumption varied from 0.31 to 0.80, 0.31 to 0.57, 0.27 to 0.77, 0.25 to 0.41mm; 16,413 to 34,254mm2/g; 5,863 to 111,620 particles per gram, 4.97 to 35.87 kWh/t, 4.76 to 53.59 kWh/t, and 8.37 to 50.17kWh/t, respectively, in the moisture content range of 5-15% wet basis at ambient and cryogenic grinding. Comparative study had shown that ambient grinding needs more power and specific energy than cryogenic grinding. Practical Applications: The grinding characteristics of fenugreek powder will be useful to control the processing parameters and it will lead to improved quality and output of the fenugreek powder. The present study on grinding characteristics of fenugreek powder provides reliable information for design of equipments for handling, processing, packaging and transportation of ground powder, which will in turn be economically helpful for powder processing industries. The better color parameters of the fenugreek powder also cause enhancement of economy that may be seen with the help of present work. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source


Barnwal P.,NDRI | Singh K.K.,ADG PE | Sharma A.,CIPHET ICAR | Choudhary A.K.,CIPHET ICAR | And 2 more authors.
International Agricultural Engineering Journal | Year: 2014

In present study, effect of grinding conditions, namely ambient and cryogenic, on the quality traits such as colour parameters, volatile oil, curcumin content, oleoresin content, total phenols and antioxidant activity in DPPH assay, specific heat, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, glass transition temperature of turmeric powder were investigated at a moisture content of 11.5% (d.b.). Volatile oil, oleoresin, curcumin, total phenols content, antioxidant activity and b colour value varied significantly with the grinding conditions. Cryo-ground turmeric powder retained 15%-25% more volatile oil, oleoresin, curcumin, phenol content and antioxidant activity as compared to ambient grinding. Specific heat increased from 10.36 to 15.57 kJ kg -1 °C-1 with increasing temperature (-100°C to +100°C) at both grinding conditions. Thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity increased from 0.049 to 0.061 W m-1 °C-1 and 9.509 × 10-8 to 11.4 × 10-8 m 2/s, respectively in a temperature range of -40°C to 55°C. A higher value of glass transition temperature was found at ambient grinding conditions. Specific heat and thermal diffusivity displayed second order polynomial relationships whereas thermal conductivity was found to be varied linearly with temperature. Such biochemical and thermal property evolution data are useful in academia as well as applicable in designing and fabrications of ambient and cryogenic grinding system for turmeric and other similar commodities. Source


Mridula D.,Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering & Technology | Barnwal P.,Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering & Technology | Singh K.K.,ADG PE
Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2015

Screw pressing performance of whole and dehulled flaxseed at different seed moisture (6.4 to 11.1 % d.b.) and press head temperature (80–120 °C) was investigated. Oil recovery, residual oil, press rate and sediment content and some important physico-chemical characteristics were determined at six different levels (50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 %) of dehulled flaxseed. Oil recovery decreased with increasing moisture content as well as press head temperature. Press rate was found maximum for 100 % dehulled flaxseed while minimum for 50 % dehulled flaxseed at 6.4 % moisture content. Colour of oil samples was found affected both with the level of dehulled flaxseed and press head temperature. Free fatty acids content of oil ranged from 1.07 % to 2.70 % and lower at 80 °C press head temperature. Oil and cake temperatures ranged from 53.10 °C to 65.95 °C and 69.15 to 103.75 °C, respectively. The α-linolenic acid content of different oil samples obtained at 80 °C was in the range of 53.34 ± 0.95 to 54.21 ± 1.04 %. In view of maximum oil recovery (82.9 % d.b.), lower FFA content, and oil and cake temperature, 7:3 ratio of dehulled and whole flaxseed having 6.4 % d.b. moisture content and 80 °C press head temperature may be considered for screw pressing of flaxseed. © 2013, Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India). Source


Mridula D.,Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering & Technology | Barnwal P.,Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering & Technology | Gurumayum S.,Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering & Technology | Singh K.K.,ADG PE
Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2012

In the present study, effects of chemical (ethanol, HCl and sulphuric acid) pretreatment on various dehulling parameters of flaxseed (cv. Garima) including yield, hull, hullability, extraction rate and embryo (dehulled flaxseed) recovery were studied. Pretreated flaxseed, at 3.1 to 3.6 % moisture range (p > 0.05) were dehulled for 60 s in a laboratory model rice polisher/dehulling machine at 2,000 rpm followed by aspiration (hull separation) using a laboratory model aspirator. The study revealed that chemical pre-dehulling treatment of flaxseed plays a significant role in the embryo recovery of flaxseed. Both ethanol and HCl pre-dehulling treatment enhanced but sulphuric acid pretreatment reduced the embryo recovery of flaxseed. Moreover, HCL and Sulphuric acid deteriorated the quality of hull obtained during dehulling, hence may not be considered for flaxseed dehulling. The study showed the maximum embryo recovery from ethanol pretreated flaxseed, hence ethanol pre-dehulling treatment with 2 h tempering time may be considered for effective flaxseed dehulling. © 2012, Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India). Source


Mridula D.,Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering and Technology | Kaur D.,Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University | Nagra S.S.,Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University | Barnwal P.,Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering and Technology | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Applied Animal Research | Year: 2014

A 42-day study was conducted to evaluate the effect of ground full-fat flaxseed supplementation on growth performance, carcass characteristics, α-linolenic acid (ALA), linoleic acid (LA) and organoleptic characteristics of broiler meat. A total of 200 one-day-old broiler chicks were randomly allocated to five experimental groups and were fed isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets containing flaxseed at 0%, 2.5%, 5.0%, 7.5% and 10%. Flaxseed supplementation did not affect the weekly body weight of broiler chicks during the first three weeks, but thereafter it reduced significantly with increasing levels of flaxseed in the diets. Birds fed on 10% flaxseed showed a reduction of 10.08% in body weight as compared to the control group. Diets containing 5.0–7.5% flaxseed resulted in significantly lower weight gain, higher feed conversion ratio, energy efficiency ratio and lower protein efficiency ratio as compared to control and 2.5% flaxseed diets. The carcass characteristics data indicated a little variation in the evisceration rate and giblet among treatment groups, but the breast yield was significantly higher in control than flaxseed groups. The protein, fat and ash content of broiler meat were not affected with the level of flaxseed in the diets. However, the inclusion of flaxseed in the diets significantly increased the ALA in the breast and thigh tissues with no difference in the organoleptic quality of meat. © 2014 Taylor & Francis Source

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