Adet Agricultural Research Center

Bahir Dar, Ethiopia

Adet Agricultural Research Center

Bahir Dar, Ethiopia
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Zegeye W.,Adet Agricultural Research Center | Dejene M.,Haramaya University | Ayalew D.,Bahir Dar University
Seed Science and Technology | Year: 2017

Barley production has been constrained by various factors, of which loose smut (Ustilago nuda) is the main biotic factor. This study was undertaken to determine the effects of seed dressing fungicides along with coating materials on loose smut incidence and yield and yield components. The field experiment was conducted at two locations (Adet and Debiretabor) using a randomised complete block design with three replications. Barley seeds were treated by dressing with different fungicides (thiram, Apron star, Dynamic and propiconazole) and coating with different formulations (Genius Coat™ and Disco AG Blue L-237). Seed treatment resulted in highly significant (P ≤0.01) differences in days to emergence and flowering, tiller number, smut incidence and yield, whereas plant height, grain-filling period, thousand seed weight and hectoliter weight were not significantly affected. Minimum (0.00%) loose smut incidence was recorded on seeds treated with propiconazole, while maximum (15.83%) incidence was recorded for plots sown with untreated seeds. Maximum yield (1727.8 kg ha-1) was obtained from seeds treated with thiram and coated with Genius plus Disco. Hence, seed treatment and use of seed coating materials would significantly reduce barley loose smut incidence and needs to be promoted.

Zegeye A.D.,Adet Agricultural Research Center | Steenhuis T.S.,Bahir Dar University | Steenhuis T.S.,Cornell University | Blake R.W.,Bahir Dar University | And 5 more authors.
Ecohydrology and Hydrobiology | Year: 2010

Erosion is of great concern in the Ethiopian highlands. The objective of this study was to determine the soil erosion rates under actual farming conditions by measuring the dimensions and number of rills in 15 agricultural fields in the Debre Mewi watershed near Lake Tana, and to understand farmers' attitudes towards land conservation through personal interviews with one-third of the watershed households. The annual rill erosion rate was 8 to 32 t ha-1. Greatest rates of erosion occurred at planting early in the season but became negligible in August. Major factors influencing land conservation decisions were the demand of labor and lack of technical support for implementing new conservation measures from experts.

Wolie A.,Adet Agricultural Research Center | Dessalegn T.,Bahir Dar University
African Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2011

The associations among yield components and their direct and indirect influence on the grain yield of finger millet were investigated. For this purpose, eighty-eight finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.) genotypes were tested using an augmented randomized complete block experimental design with two replications at Adet Agricultural Research Center in 2008. Accordingly, phenotypic and genotypic correlations among the traits and their path coefficients were estimated. Grain yield was significantly correlated with its component characters like plant height (r p=0.446** and r g=0.574**), number of ears per plant (r p=0.364** and r g=0.443**), number of fingers per ear (r p=0.329** and r g=0.532**), finger length (r p=0.361** and r g=0.426**), biomass yield (r p and r g=0.839**), harvest index (r p=0.336** and r g=0.476**) and thousand kernel weight (r p=0.225* and r g=0.267*). Phenotypic path analysis showed biomass yield (0.835) and finger length (0.159), number of fingers per ear (0.016), and number of ears per plant (0.038) to exert positive direct effects on grain yield, while plant height, days to heading and days to maturity exhibited negative direct effects. Genotypic path analysis also revealed that biomass yield (2.240), number of tillers per plant (0.359) and finger length (0.242) exerted positive direct effects on grain yield. Thus, the correlation analysis showed plant height, number of ears per plant, number of fingers per ear, finger length, biomass yield, harvest index and 1000 kernel weight to be important yield components that can be used to improve the yield potential of finger millet genotypes. ©2011 Academic Journals.

Kindu G.A.,Wageningen University | Kindu G.A.,Adet Agricultural Research Center | Tang J.,Jiangxi Agricultural University | Yin X.,Wageningen University | Struik P.C.,Wageningen University
Euphytica | Year: 2014

Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was conducted on data generated from two pot experiments carried out in 2005 (using four nitrogen rates) and 2008 (with three rates) with AFLP markers and 94 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of the Prisma × Apex mapping population. In total 41 QTLs were detected on 6 chromosomes and for 18 traits in both trials. About 95 % of the detected QTLs were with major additive effects. The percentage of variance accounted for by individual QTLs in the multiple QTL mapping model ranged from 8.4 to 54.4 % across all mapped traits in both years. Fifteen QTLs were related to NUE and its components; most of these QTLs were detected at lower nitrogen rates and none at the highest rate in both trials. These QTLs were found on Chromosomes 3(3H) and 7(5H) in 2005 and Chromosome 2(2H) in 2008. Except for the QTLs of plant height and NUE based on grain yield, none of the QTLs which were detected for a given trait in 2005, expressed themselves in 2008 irrespective of the nitrogen levels. QTLs controlling some traits were co-located in each year, and QTLs for many traits were detected on the same chromosome and close to the denso locus. Further research is needed to investigate the possibility to reduce nitrogen fertilizer requirements through breeding while maintaining high yield of barley. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Teshome A.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Mendesil E.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Geleta M.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Andargie D.,Adet Agricultural Research Center | And 7 more authors.
Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution | Year: 2015

Field pea (Pisum sativum L. subsp. sativum) is an important agricultural crop worldwide, as a main source of protein in human diet and as animal fodder. In Ethiopia, it is the second most important legume crop next to faba bean (Vicia faba L.). However, the production is threatened by pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum L.), which is a rapidly spreading insect pest throughout the country. During June–October 2011, a total of 602 pea accessions from Ethiopia were screened for pea weevil resistance at three field sites in Ethiopia. From this trial, accessions with relatively low mean percent seed damage (PSD) were selected and evaluated during June-October 2012 in replicated trials. Some genotypes from the selected accessions were also studied under greenhouse conditions for up to three generations. Both in the field and greenhouse trials, a significant level of variation in PSD were observed among accessions/genotypes. However, a few of them showed relatively consistent results across sites and years. The gene bank accessions 32454 and 235002 had consistently <40 % PSD. These accessions had 17 and 33 % PSD, respectively, at a site where the highest and overall mean PSD were 92 and 75 %, respectively. Also, promising genotypes with consistently low levels of seed damage were identified in accessions 226037 and 32410. The incorporation of such promising accessions/genotypes into pea breeding programs may lead to the development of field pea varieties with enhanced resistance against pea weevil and consequently contribute to sustainable field pea production in Ethiopia and beyond. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Wondie M.,Adet Agricultural Research Center | Schneider W.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Melesse A.M.,Florida International University | Teketay D.,University of Botswana
Remote Sensing | Year: 2011

The trend of land cover (LC) and land cover change (LCC), both in time and space, was investigated at the Simen Mountains National Park (SMNP), a World Heritage Site located in northern Ethiopia, between 1984 and 2003 using Geographical Information System (GIS) and remote sensing (RS). The objective of the study was to generate spatially and temporally quantified information on land cover dynamics, providing the basis for policy/decision makers and resource managers to facilitate biodiversity conservation, including wild animals. Two satellite images (Landsat TM of 1984 and Landsat ETM+ of 2003) were acquired and supervised classification was used to categorize LC types. Ground Control Points were obtained in field condition for georeferencing and accuracy assessment. The results showed an increase in the areas of pure forest (Erica species dominated) and shrubland but a decrease in the area of agricultural land over the 20 years. The overall accuracy and the Kappa value of classification results were 88 and 85%, respectively. The spatial setting of the LC classes was heterogeneous and resulted from the biophysical nature of SMNP and anthropogenic activities. Further studies are suggested to evaluate the existing LC and LCC in connection with wildlife habitat, conservation and management of SMNP. © 2011 by the authors.

Gedif M.,Adet Agricultural Research Center | Yigzaw D.,Amhara Region Agricultural Research Institute
Potato Journal | Year: 2014

Potato is one of the important crops grown in mid and high altitude areas of Ethiopia. Several potato genotypes have been introduced in different parts of this region. However, the stability and performance of these genotypes is not yet assessed. Therefore, a study to determine the effect of genotype, environment and their interaction for tuber yield and identify stable potato genotypes was conducted using eight potato genotypes in rainfed production season of years 2010 and 2011 at five potato growing locations in the region. Among the testing locations, the superior mean tuber yield (25.43 t/ha) was obtained at Adet while the inferior (13.89 t/ha) was at Injibara. Similarly, among the genotypes CIP- 396004.337 gave the highest mean tuber yield (25.66 t/ha), while CIP-395011.2 gave the lowest (17.78 t/ha). Combined ANOVA indicated that the main effect due to environments, genotypes and genotype by environment interaction were highly significant. The contribution of E, G and GEI to the total variation in tuber yield was about 47.11%, 8.83% and 44.07%, respectively. The GEI was further partitioned using GGE biplot model. The first two principal components obtained by singular value decomposition of the centered data of tuber yield explained 71.26% of the total variability caused by (G+GE). Out of these variations PC1 and PC2 accounted 51.24 and 20.02% variability, respectively. GGE biplot view of this study identified Serinka as ideal testing location and CIP- 396004.337 as ideal genotype for Amhara region in Ethiopia.

The study was conducted in the organic trial field of Wageningen University and Research Centre with the objective of how diversity with the composite cross populations of winter wheat evolves over the years? And which traits show most diversification? Four different aged composite cross population, one CCP-extra population and one pure line winter wheat cultivar were evaluated using a randomized complete block design with three replications. Significant differences were observed for the traits plant height, flag leaf spike length and width of the leaf next to the first leaf. For plant height and flag leaf spike length, all CCPs have higher values for the diversity index. There were no significant differences between the CCPs in values for the Shannon-Weaver diversity index, H'. Genotypes showed highly significant differences for the SD within plots for the traits plant height (p<0.001), flag leaf spike distance (p<0.001), width of the 1st leaf next to the 1st node (p<0.008) and width of the flag leaf (p<0.001). © 2014 Asian Network for Scientific Information.

Tadesse T.,Adet Agricultural Research Center | Yeshealem B.,Adet Agricultural Research Center | Assefa A.,Adet Agricultural Research Center | Liben M.,Adet Agricultural Research Center
Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2012

Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata) seed rate and leaf topping experiment was conducted in Ethiopia at Adet experimental station and on farmers' fields, for two consecutive years (2005-2006). Complete factorial combination of four topping treatments (no topping, topping at 20, 30 and 40 days-after emergence) and four seed rates (4, 6, 8, and 10 kg/ha) were tested in a randomized complete block design with three replications at each year. Leaf topping caused reduction in thousand seeds weight, seed and oil yield as compared to non-topping. From the experiment it was concluded that if the objective of the Ethiopian mustard production is for higher oil production, it should be planted at 8 kg/ha seed rate and avoiding leaf topping practice. However, if the objective of the production is for grain as well as leaf yields, planting it at a seed rate of 10 kg/ha and topping it 40 days after emergence is the best-recommended practice.

Ayalew H.,P.A. College | Ayalew H.,University of Western Australia | Wondale L.,Adet Agricultural Research Center | Teshager A.,Adet Agricultural Research Center
Australian Journal of Crop Science | Year: 2014

Grain quality traits like hectolitre weight are quantitatively inherited and as a result their phenotypic performance is highly influenced by genotype, environment, and the interaction between the two. The present study was conducted in north western Ethiopia across six test locations during the 2008 and 2009 cropping seasons to study the nature of GEI on hectolitre weight of bread wheat and to classify environments based on the performance of genotypes. Randomised complete block design with three replicates was used on each site. A total of 12 advanced bread wheat lines along with standard and local checks were tested and data were analysed on hectolitre weight. Both the main effects of genotypes and environments, and their interaction significantly (P≤0.01) contributed for the observed phenotype. The environment explained 46.6 % of the total variation while GEI and genotype explained 15.6% and 10%, respectively. The first two principal components of a GGE biplot explained 67% of the variation. ETBW5344 was the most stable and near ideal genotype for regional release while ETBW5345 was the most variable genotype. The six locations were divided in to two mega environments ETBW5345 and ETBW4992 being the two best genotypes in each of the mega environments. Among the test sites Adet was the most representative and most discriminating environment while Sirinka was less desirable as a testing site for hectolitre weight. Trials across several years need to be done to firmly conclude the presence of the two mega environments.

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