Sharma C.,Adesh Institute of Engineering & Technology |
Mahajan A.,Rayat & Bahra Institute of Engineering and Biotechnology |
Kumar Garg U.,Adesh Institute of Engineering & Technology
Desalination and Water Treatment | Year: 2014
Prevalence of fluoride and nitrate in groundwater has become major concern due to their potential environmental related health impacts. High fluoride and nitrate concentrations have been reported from many parts of rural southwestern Punjab causing serious health threats to the inhabitants. The present study is focussed on evaluating the recent status of fluoride and nitrate contamination of drinking water sources from Ferozepur, Faridkot, and Bathinda districts of Punjab. The sampling sites were selected after comprehensive surveying and preliminary analysis of the data collected through questionnaire. Other physico-chemical parameters analyzed were the pH, TDS, electrical conductivity, phosphate concentration along with depth, and age of source. Findings showed that 59 and 95% groundwater samples were found to have fluoride and nitrate content, respectively, beyond permissible limits (WHO). High fluoride concentration up to 10.6 mg/L and nitrate concentration up to 90 mg/L in drinking water is observed from Faridkot and Bathinda districts. Mean fluoride and nitrate concentration was found to be 3.0302 and 25.14 with standard deviation 1.317 and 10.32, respectively. Statistical analysis was also done to study the correlation/association between various studied parameters viz. nitrate, fluoride, pH, EC, and depth, and it was found that fluoride showed positive correlation with pH (R2 = 0.82) and negative correlation with depth and EC (R2 = 0.4118 and 0.9169, respectively). Similarly, nitrate showed negative trend with depth, EC, and pH (R2 = 0.95, 0.9199, and 0.395, respectively). Phosphate concentration was also analyzed but none was found conclusive as all the samples were found within permissible range. Geospatial variation with fluoride was also observed at certain locations. © 2014 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.
Handa A.,Punjab Technical University |
Chawla V.,Adesh Institute of Engineering & Technology
International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology | Year: 2014
Austenitic stainless steel and low alloy steels are extensively used in various automotive, aerospace, nuclear, chemical, and other general purpose applications. Joining of dissimilar metals is one of the challenging tasks and most essential need of the present-day industry. It has been observed that a wide range of dissimilar materials can be easily integrated by friction welding. The objectives of the present investigation were obtaining weldments between austenitic stainless steel (AISI 304) with low alloy steel (AISI 1021) and optimizing the friction welding parameters in order to establish the weld quality. In the present study, an experimental setup was designed in order to achieve friction welding of plastically deformed austenitic stainless steel and low alloy steel. AISI 304 and AISI 1021 steels were welded by friction welding using five different axial pressures at 1,430 rpm. The joining performances of friction-welded dissimilar joints were studied, and influences of these process parameters on the mechanical properties of the friction-welded joints were estimated. The joint strength was determined with tensile testing, and the fracture behavior was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and was supported and backed by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. Furthermore, the proposed joints were tested for impact strength, and the microhardness across the joint was also evaluated. © 2014, Springer-Verlag London.