Redwood City, CA, United States

Adelphi Technology, Inc.

www.adelphitech.com
Redwood City, CA, United States
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Patent
Adelphi Technology, Inc. | Date: 2017-04-17

A method for neutron-capture therapy has steps for emitting fast neutrons from a plurality of target structures by ion bombardment from ion sources DC biased to the target structures, the target structures positioned around a moderator structure composed primarily of moderator material, the moderator structure having a length, an outer periphery, an outer surface, an inside volume, and an inner surface, the inside volume defining a treatment zone, reflecting fast neutrons that are emitted from the target structures in a direction away from the moderator structure, into the moderator structure, by a reflector structure surrounding the moderator structure, the target structures, and the ion sources, moderating fast neutrons passing inward through the moderator structure toward the treatment zone to epithermal energy level, and creating a density of epithermal neutrons in the treatment zone, from neutrons entering the treatment zone across the inner surface of the moderator structure.


Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 150.00K | Year: 2013

This project will develop position-sensitive liquid argon detectors for a range of nuclear physics experiments. A particular need is for large area detectors with good energy, spatial and time resolution. Originally developed for calorimetry and the detection of neutrinos, weakly interacting massive particles and neutrinoless double beta decay, liquefied noble gas (LNG) detectors have several advantages over other technologies. LNG detectors provide a highly cost effective method of achieving large detector masses. Because the detectors can be made extremely thick, they are highly efficient. With the addition of charge readout, these detectors can provide excellent energy resolution, exceeding that of sodium iodide. Since the scintillation material is a liquid, these detectors are extremely radiation resistant. The differing response of the scintillation light due to neutrons and gammas allows for exceptional pulse shape and charge to light ratio discrimination, and the sharp leading edge of the pulses makes fast nanosecond timing resolution possible. Adelphi Technology, working with Yale University, has already built, constructed and operated large volume 0.2% xenon-doped liquid argon (LAr(Xe)) detectors for industrial portal screening applications. By introducing electrodes into the liquid argon and operating the detector as a time projection chamber, the investigators propose to provide energy resolutions approaching 2% and tracking ability with millimeter spatial resolution, in addition to the advantages already demonstrated. Phase I of the proposed project will include the design and implementation of charge readout in a LAr(Xe) detector, taking advantage of existing detectors and infrastructure. Phase II would include the construction of a full position-sensitive tracking detector. Commercial Applications and Other Benefits: The proposed detector platform presents a unique and broad range of capabilities, including high efficiency, excellent time, spatial and energy resolution, and it can be readily expanded to large scales. The resulting detector will provide excellent particle tracking and energy resolution when operated in a time projection chamber mode with both light and charge readout. Alternately, the detector could be operated with only light readout, for high-rate data acquisition and nanosecond timing. Such a detector could also be built with a thin window to allow rare ion implantation into the liquid argon for FRIB applications. Importantly, a layered array of detector planes could be built to create a medical imaging detector for nuclear medicine that could measure the position and direction of gammas from a patient, dramatically increasing imaging performance and reducing patient dose.


Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 150.00K | Year: 2013

Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) has been an extremely productive materials science probe for several decades and is used extensively by researchers studying a wide range of subjects, including polymers, ceramics, metals and biological macromolecules and functions. However, it is limited to length scales from 1 to 100 nm and requires highly collimated and relatively monochromatic neutron beams, reducing its ability to study dilute systems. Ultra- SANS increases the achievable length scale, but at the cost of reduced signal. Spin Echo Scattering Angle Measurement (SESAME) has been developed to visualize larger structures and permit broader bandwidth and divergence of the neutron beam, increasing signal. To fully capitalize on this method hardware with much improved performance is required. The proposed neutron spin interferometer uses matched pairs of magnetic Wollaston prisms to provide the precisely cancelling neutron spin precession needed for spin echo angle encoding. A novel design using superconducting coils and Meissner screens is proposed to achieve high magnetic fields and the dimensional precision that is required for accurate structural measurements over a range of length scales extending from a few nanometers to several mircons. The resultant device does not require careful cancelling of background magnetic fields and will greatly extend the measurement capabilities of neutron scattering in the area of nanoscience. The end product is a more compact, lower-cost instrument capable of measuring a wider range of structures with increased signal. Commercial Applications and Other Benefits: By extending the range of structural objects that can be studied, the proposed instrument will open new fields of material science studies. Possibilities include visualizing the later stages of precipitate coarsening in metal alloys, cavity growth in fatigued metals and ceramics as well as many aggregation and self-assembly phenomena. Applications are in petrochemicals (colloidal and aggregate dynamics), biotechnology and medicine (membranes, macromolecules), and industry (metallurgy, ceramics, polymers, electrolytes in fuel cells, magnetic sensors and memory). Given the lower cost and size of this system along with the continuing development of more powerful neutron generators, the proposed instrument should be suitable for neutron studies at weak neutrons sources installed at smaller laboratories, such as at universities.


Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 100.00K | Year: 2010

Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) has been an extremely productive materials science probe for several decades and is used extensively by researchers studying a wide range of subjects, including polymers, ceramics, metals and biological macromolecules and functions. However, it is limited to length scales from 1 to 100 nm and requires highly collimated and relatively monochromatic neutron beams, reducing its ability to study dilute systems. Ultra- SANS increases the achievable length scale, but at the cost of reduced signal. Spin Echo Scattering Angle Measurement (SESAME) has been developed to visualize larger structures and permit broader bandwidth and divergence of the neutron beam, increasing signal. To fully capitalize on this method hardware with much improved performance is required. The proposed neutron spin interferometer uses matched pairs of magnetic Wollaston prisms to provide the precisely cancelling neutron spin precession needed for spin echo angle encoding. A novel design using superconducting coils and Meissner screens is proposed to achieve high magnetic fields and the dimensional precision that is required for accurate structural measurements over a range of length scales extending from a few nanometers to several mircons. The resultant device does not require careful cancelling of background magnetic fields and will greatly extend the measurement capabilities of neutron scattering in the area of nanoscience. The end product is a more compact, lower-cost instrument capable of measuring a wider range of structures with increased signal. Commercial Applications and Other Benefits: By extending the range of structural objects that can be studied, the proposed instrument will open new fields of material science studies. Possibilities include visualizing the later stages of precipitate coarsening in metal alloys, cavity growth in fatigued metals and ceramics as well as many aggregation and self-assembly phenomena. Applications are in petrochemicals (colloidal and aggregate dynamics), biotechnology and medicine (membranes, macromolecules), and industry (metallurgy, ceramics, polymers, electrolytes in fuel cells, magnetic sensors and memory). Given the lower cost and size of this system along with the continuing development of more powerful neutron generators, the proposed instrument should be suitable for neutron studies at weak neutrons sources installed at smaller laboratories, such as at universities.


Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 1.00M | Year: 2014

Neutron Scattering has been an extremely productive materials science probe for over 60 years. It is no exaggeration to say that any technology that uses plastics has benefitted from it in some way from Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS). Unfortunately, SANS is limited to studying molecular structures with sizes between 1 to 100 nm and so often misses larger details. Similarly, neutron radiography has played an important role in identifying and tracking hydrogen in structures from cracked aircraft wings to fuel cells, but is limited by its ability to discriminate between certain materials. We plan to address both of these areas with a new technology. For addressing the SANS problem, and also revolutionizing neutron phase contrast radiography, Adelphi is developing a novel Superconducting Wollaston Prism (HiTc-Wollaston Prism instrument) for Spin Echo Scattering Angle Measurement (SESAME) that uses high temperature superconducting (HiTc) coils and Meissner screens. This achieves high magnetic fields and dimensional precision required for accurate structural measurements over length scales from nanometers to 20 microns. The HiTc-Wollaston Prism instruments use matched Wollaston prism pairs that precisely cancel neutron spin precession needed for spin echo angle encoding. We accomplished all 4 goals Phase I project by designing, simulating, optimizing, and fabricating a single HiTc-Wollaston prism based on high-temperature superconducting (HiTc) technology. The HiTc-Wollaston prism was successfully tested at Indiana University and NIST. Our success prompted an offer of collaboration from ISIS, a leading European neutron facility. In Phase II we will design, optimize, fabricate, and test the HiTc-Wollaston 4-Prism instrument for SESAME and the HiTc-Wollaston 2-Prism instrument for phase contrast radiography at U.S. neutron scattering facilities. We will also collaborate with the US and worldwide facilities to develop and market the HiTc-Wollaston Prism instruments for reflectometry and diffractometry. Commercial Applications and OtherBenefits: By extension of the range of structural objects that can be studied, the HiTc-Wollaston Prism instrument will open new fields of material science studies. Applications are in petrochemicals (colloids, micro-emulsions and polymers), biotechnology and medicine (membranes, macromolecules), and industry (metallurgy, ceramics, polymers, electrolytes in fuel cells, magnetic sensors and memory). Master of HiTc-technology will allow us to develop components for other polarized neutron instruments and increase our market impact worldwide.


Cremer J.T.,Adelphi Technology, Inc.
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics | Year: 2013

This chapter covers the correlation, scatter, and intermediate functions of small-angle neutron scatter (SANS). Small-angle X-ray and neutron scatter from general sample materials are covered, followed by the Rayleigh-Gans equation, Babinets' principle, and the differential cross section of X-ray or neutron small-angle scattering from a solute-solvent sample. This provides a resolution of the scattering vector for a SANS instrument for X-rays or neutrons. The chapter also presents neutron scatter length density, particle structure factor, scatter amplitudes, and intensity. The following topics are also covered: random variables, correlation, and independence, followed by derivation of the macroscopic differential cross section for neutron scatter, which involves convolution and cross correlation. Also presented are the coherent and incoherent, elastic and inelastic components of the pair correlation function, intermediate function, and scatter function, the relationships among these functions, and the measured SANS intensities from the neutron scattering sample. The Guinier, intermediate, and Porod regimes of the sample-averaged intermediate function are covered, in addition to the method of contrast variation and Porod's law. Coherent neutron scatter measurements are shown to yield the solute particle size and shape in the Guinier regime, and incoherent neutron scatter measurements are shown to yield the incoherent scatter function, which gives particle diffusion information. Also derived is the principle of detailed balance. Other covered topics are the static approximation, the particle number density operator and pair correlation function, and the moments of the neutron scatter function. The neutron coherent differential cross section in crystals is shown to be expressed by particle density operators, and neutron elastic scatter is shown by the coherent intermediate and scatter functions to occur only in the forward direction for liquids and gases. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Cremer Jr. J.T.,Adelphi Technology, Inc.
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics | Year: 2013

This chapter derives the partial differential cross sections for neutron scatter from a nucleus, which accounts for the neutron spin and the nuclear spin. First covered are the preliminary background topics of angular momentum vectors, spin vectors, and vector operators, the Heisenberg uncertainty principle and commutation of operators, the neutron spin operator, and the neutron spin-lowering and -raising operators. First, the partial differential cross section for nuclear scatter of the neutron spin-up and spin-down states is dervied. Next derived for polarized neutron scatter is the partial differential cross section, which includes both the neutron spin state and nuclear spin state, via the combined neutron spin operator and nuclear spin operators. Covered next are the neutron nuclear scatter length, which accounts for the neutron spin states. Thermal averaging is then taken into account, and the total partial differential cross section for neutron spin state scatter is derived, as well as the neutron spin state scatter lengths for an ensemble of nuclear spins and isotopes. Finally, the partial, differential, and total cross section for neutron coherent and incoherent scatter are derived from an ensemble of atoms of varying nuclear spins and isotopes, which accounts for neutron spin states. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 150.00K | Year: 2012

An improved neutron collection and focusing lens is needed for small angle neutron scatter and neutron microscopy, and increasing flux for thermal neutron capture gamma analysis. Adelphi Technology proposes to design, fabricate, and test a two-dimensional magnetic lens to refract and focus thermal and cold neutrons. The proposed magnetic lens is comprised of a stack of annular permanent magnets, which are radial magnetized and alternate in polarity in the radial direction. Commercial Applications and Other Benefits: The proposed magnetic neutron lens will provide neutron focusing and imaging for neutron microscopy, small angle neutron scatter, and other neutron optics applications. The sales of the magnetic lens are government and academic neutron facilities, which serve and promote industrial and technological development in the U.S. The proposed lenses provide an important indirect benefit to the U.S. economy by enhancement of neutron-based R & amp;D facilities.


Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 1.00M | Year: 2013

The resolution of several instruments now used to measure materials structural dimensions is limited by the neutron flux at the sample. Material lenses have been used to improve this situation, but are limited by absorption and small aperture. Larger apertures and lower absorption lenses are needed, especially for longer wavelength neutrons. Statement of How the Problem or Situation is Being Addressed Adelphi Technology proposes to design, fabricate, and test a magnetic lens to refract and focus thermal and cold neutrons. The new lenses will have larger apertures with no intervening material that can scatter and absorb the neutrons. The lenses also have the added benefit that they provide polarized neutrons, which can be used to probe magnetic and superconducting materials, and achieve higher resolution than non-polarized beams. Commercial Applications and Other Benefits The proposed magnetic neutron lens will provide neutron focusing and imaging for neutron microscopy, small angle neutron scatter, and other neutron optics applications. The lens can be used in instruments to help determine the sizes and structures of objects on the nanoscale (1-100nm), like polymer molecules, biological molecules, defect structures in metals and ceramics, pores in rocks, magnetic clusters, magnetic flux lines in type-II superconductors and so on. The sales of the magnetic lens are to government and academic neutron facilities, which serve and promote industrial and technological development in the U.S. The proposed lenses provide an important indirect benefit to the U.S. economy by enhancement of neutron-based R & amp;D facilities.


Patent
Adelphi Technology, Inc. | Date: 2014-02-26

A therapy apparatus for producing thermal neutrons at a tumor site in a patient has a plurality of fast neutron sources surrounding a moderator, a fast neutron reflecting media around the fast neutron sources, a gamma-ray and neutron shielding media surrounding the fast neutron reflecting media, and a patient chamber positioned inside the moderator. The fast neutron sources are positioned around the moderator to maximize and direct the neutron flux to said tumor site.

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