NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environmental Security | Year: 2017
Though the interconnections between disasters and security are becoming better understood, governments and militaries remain poorly equipped to assess and manage the risks that climate change and disasters pose to security and development. The identification of these risks constitutes only the first step in the process of implementing a risk management approach that effectively reduces vulnerabilities and builds the resilience of state institutions and societies. The next step is deeper analysis of likelihood, severity and variability for each of these risks along a range of climate change scenarios while also situating them within specific geographic, socioeconomic and political contexts. For this, it is necessary to look not just at climate hazards but to the systems within which they play out. A resilience systems analysis provides one way of doing this at a macro level. At the same time, a conflict-sensitive risk analysis enables an understanding of appropriate responses at a local level. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017.
NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environmental Security | Year: 2017
The consequences of climate change are already upon us and are projected to worsen. Impacts are already being felt around the world. These impacts will be most harmful to security and stability in already fragile contexts where vulnerable communities are already facing the risk of conflict and insecurity. This presentation sets out seven compound risk factors through which climate change and human security are interrelated. This is intended to help the understanding of the current and future implications of climate change on human security in fragile states so that we can better address some of these risks through preventative interventions and resilience building where possible © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017.
Hudson P.,VU University Amsterdam |
Botzen W.J.W.,VU University Amsterdam |
Kreibich H.,German Research Center for Geosciences |
Bubeck P.,Adelphi |
H. Aerts J.C.J.,VU University Amsterdam
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences | Year: 2014
The employment of damage mitigation measures (DMMs) by individuals is an important component of integrated flood risk management. In order to promote efficient damage mitigation measures, accurate estimates of their damage mitigation potential are required. That is, for correctly assessing the damage mitigation measures' effectiveness from survey data, one needs to control for sources of bias. A biased estimate can occur if risk characteristics differ between individuals who have, or have not, implemented mitigation measures. This study removed this bias by applying an econometric evaluation technique called propensity score matching (PSM) to a survey of German households along three major rivers that were flooded in 2002, 2005, and 2006. The application of this method detected substantial overestimates of mitigation measures' effectiveness if bias is not controlled for, ranging from nearly EUR 1700 to 15 000 per measure. Bias-corrected effectiveness estimates of several mitigation measures show that these measures are still very effective since they prevent between EUR 6700 and 14 000 of flood damage per flood event. This study concludes with four main recommendations regarding how to better apply propensity score matching in future studies, and makes several policy recommendations. © Author(s) 2014.
PubMed | Pfizer, Chulalongkorn University, Chiang Mai University, Monash University and Adelphi
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of technology assessment in health care | Year: 2015
Lung cancer has been the most common cancer since 1985, accounting for 12-13 percent of cancer cases worldwide. Newer targeted therapies with potential increased survival benefits may not be affordable to patients. Many countries use arbitrary thresholds to determine whether a medical intervention is cost-effective. As such, many effective, albeit expensive, therapies are not being reimbursed. To understand the value placed on effective therapies, this study evaluates the patient and public willingness to pay (WTP) for a quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) for lung cancer treatments using Thailand as an example.A total of 300 subjects responded to hypothetical lung cancer health states, described by three levels of severity and two levels of side effects, and provided their valuation of the level of quality of life and their WTP to improve from one state to another.The patients with the lowest income and general public were willing to pay more than twice the threshold for acceptability in Thailand (US Dollar 5,123/QALY [Thai Baht 160,000/QALY]). This increased significantly by wealth category. Patients WTP was associated with quality of life, financial difficulties, health insurance, diarrhea, and wealth.The current study highlights the value patients and general public place on effective lung cancer therapies.
Siegfried K.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research |
Hahn-Tomer S.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research |
Osterwalder E.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research |
Pal S.,Jadavpur University |
And 2 more authors.
One Century of the Discovery of Arsenicosis in Latin America (1914-2014): As 2014 - Proceedings of the 5th International Congress on Arsenic in the Environment | Year: 2014
Arsenic concentrations in groundwater were analyzed with the ARSOlux biosensor directly in the field near Murshidabad, in West Bengal, India as part of the EU funded ECO-India project. The focus of this particular study was to demonstrate the functionality, practicality and biologic safety of the biosensors to stakeholders and researchers responsible for biosafety aspects. The non-pathogenic, genetically modified biosensor was imported with the permission of the Institutional Biosafety Committee of the Jadavpur University, Kolkata. The biosensors were deactivated after usage; they pose no danger to the environment or health, which is stated in a risk assessment report prepared by the Central Commission on Biologic Safety (ZKBS) in Germany, which was published in 2013. It is intended to commercialize the biosensor in due course to enable governments, companies and NGOs working in the water sector internationally to use this technology, which could be of great benefit to prevent arsenicosis. © 2014 Taylor & Francis Group.
Gerber R.A.,Pfizer |
Perry R.,Adelphi |
Thompson R.,Pfizer |
Bainbridge C.,Pulvertaft Hand Center
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders | Year: 2011
Background: Dupuytren's disease is a fibro-proliferative disorder affecting ∼3-5% of the UK population. Current surgical treatments for Dupuytren's contracture (DC) include fasciectomy and fasciotomy. We assessed the clinical management of DC in England over a 5-year period; associated NHS costs were assessed for a 1-year period. Methods. Hospital Episode Statistics were extracted from April 2003 to March 2008 for patients with Palmar Fascial Fibromatosis (ICD10 = M720) and DC-related procedures. Variables included demographics, OPCS, patient status and physician specialty. To estimate 2010-2011 costs, HRG4 codes and the National Schedule of Tariff 2010-11-NHS Trusts were applied to the 2007-2008 period. Results: Over 5 years, 75,157 DC admissions were recorded; 64,506 were analyzed. Mean admissions per year were 12,901 and stable. Day cases increased from 42% (2003-2004) to 62% (2007-2008). The percent of patients having two or more admissions per year increased from 5.5% in 2003-2004 to 26.1% in 2007-2008. Between 2003 and 2007, 91% of procedures were Fasciectomy. Revision of Fasciectomy and Fasciotomy each accounted for ∼4%; Amputation for 1%. In 2007, classification was extended to identify Digital Fasciectomy, its Revision and Dermofasciectomy. In 2007-2008, admissions were: 70% Palmar Fasciectomy, 16% Digital Fasciectomy, 1.3% Other Fasciectomy, 4.4% Revision of Palmar Fasciectomy, 1.3% Revision of Digital Fasciectomy, 3.8% Division of Palmar Fascia, 2.6% Dermofasciectomy and 1.1% Amputation. 79% of cases were overseen by trauma and orthopaedic surgeons, 19% by plastic surgeons. Mean (±SD) inpatient hospital length of stay was 1.5 (±1.4) days in 2003-2004 and 1.0 (±1.3) days in 2007-2008. Total estimated costs for 1 year (2010-2011) were 41,576,141. Per-patient costs were €2,885 (day case) and 3,534 (inpatient). Costs ranged from €2,736 (day-case Fasciectomy) to €9,210 (day-case Revision Digital). Conclusions: Between 2003 and 2008, fasciectomy was the most common surgical procedure for DC in England. While procedure rates and physician specialties varied little, there was a reversal in surgical venue: inpatient operations decreased as day-case procedures increased. The change is likely due to economic trends and changes to the healthcare system. Estimated costs for 2010-2011 varied by procedure type and patient status. These findings can be used to understand clinical management of DC and guide healthcare policy. © 2011 Gerber et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Fritzsche K.,Adelphi |
Zejli D.,Unite Technologies |
Energy Policy | Year: 2011
Global climate and energy governance have led to the creation of a wide range of international and regional institutions, initiatives and financial mechanisms dedicated to fostering renewable energies. Furthermore, a low-carbon economy has evolved in recent years. The objective of this paper is to assess the potential benefits and merits of these institutions, initiatives and mechanisms from the perspective of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. The central questions are if and how these organizations, initiatives and finance mechanisms could support a country from MENA in its efforts to implement large-scale capacities for renewable energy production. For this purpose, Morocco was chosen as a case study. The findings in this paper indicate that the existing institutions and financial mechanisms do not sum up to a coordinated governance approach, although the main needs of a country or region appear to be addressed. The existing institutions and financial mechanisms vary significantly in their ability to support countries, especially those taking the lead in renewable energy implementation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
Tyrwhitt-Drake R.,EHI Communication |
Ferragud M.A.,Adelphi |
De Andres R.U.,The Coca-Cola Company
Revista Espanola de Nutricion Comunitaria | Year: 2014
Rationale: Proper hydration is critical to human health and wellbeing. Currently, little is known about the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs regarding hydration among the general adult population. A survey was conducted to explore some of the misunderstanding around hydration. Methods: A web-based survey was designed to elicit information about knowledge and understanding of hydration, dehydration and overhydration. The structured questionnaire took approximately 10 minutes to complete. Descriptive statistics are presented. Results:3,000 adults (18-65 years) completed the survey (1,000 adults/country in United Kingdom, France and Spain). Overall, 43% and 33% of the sample did not know adequate daily intake of water for men and women, respectively. The majority of participants incorrectly believed that everyone should drink eight glasses of plain water each day (78%). Urine colour was the most recognised indicator of proper hydration (85%) and 81% of the sample recognised tiredness as symptom of dehydration. Knowledge of the symptoms of overhydration was poor with < 50% of participants able to identify common symptoms. Conclusions: Given the implications for public health, knowledge among the general adult population should be improved with regard to awareness of adequate water intakes, dietary sources of water, symptoms of dehydration and overhydration.
NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environmental Security | Year: 2012
The discourse and academic work around water conflicts is often focused on international water conflicts. As a consequence, although local water conflicts are common and affect the everyday life of many communities around the world, they are frequently overlooked. Analytical tools and trainings on local water conflicts are thus scarce. The Water, Crisis and Climate Change Assessment Framework (WACCAF) helps to close this gap. It guides users through an analysis of the different factors that play a role in local water conflicts. The goal of this tool is to better understand the conflict potential of competition around water resources, in order to prevent a water crisis from escalating into a conflict. It can also help to understand an existing water conflict and identify ways to solve it. The WACCAF specifically focuses on how the interaction between marginalisation and unequal water access and availability can create conflict (potential). These findings are then placed in wider social and historical contexts by looking at past conflicts and general marginalisation patterns in society. The analysis is completed by understanding the factors that decrease the potential for conflict, in particular cooperation and conflict resolution mechanisms. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012.
Chaturvedi A.,German Society for International Cooperation |
Strasser C.,German Society for International Cooperation |
Eisinger F.,German Society for International Cooperation |
Raghupathy L.,Adelphi |
And 2 more authors.
Electronics Goes Green 2012+, ECG 2012 - Joint International Conference and Exhibition, Proceedings | Year: 2012
The carbon footprint of any product or process has become a reference value which is of increasing importance. As part of the WEEE Recycle project (www.weeerecyle.in) the authors have assessed the carbon footprint of metals produced from PC scrap in India under different recycling scenarios. To calculate emission figures, data from the ecoinvent database (Classen et al., 2009) (Hischier, 2007) were used. The results show that the use of secondary raw materials can lower the carbon footprint of new products. They also demonstrate that it may be valuable in economic as well as environmental terms to dismantle the scrap manually in India before then further processing it elsewhere. Manual dismantling results in a higher dismantling depth which leads to a higher metal content in the scrap entering the smelter. Therefore manual dismantling has a lower carbon account than mechanical dismantling. Regarding the extraction of metals through a pyro-metallurgical process it has been found that the high carbon footprint of the Indian electricity mix renders the option of shipping the waste to Europe more attractive in terms of lower carbon emissions. © 2012 Fraunhofer IZM.