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Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Tsidu G.M.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology
Journal of Climate | Year: 2012

Recent heightened concern regarding possible consequences of anthropogenically induced global warming has spurred analyses of data aimed at detection of climate change and more thorough characterization of the natural climate variability. However, there is greater concern regarding the extent and especially quality of the historical climate data. In this paper, rainfall records of 233 gauge stations over Ethiopia for the 1978-2007 period are employed in an analysis that involves homogenization, reconstruction, and gridding onto a regular 0.5°×0.5° resolution grid. Inhomogeneity is detected and adjusted based on quantile matching. The regularized expectation-maximization and multichannel singular spectrum analysis algorithms are then utilized for imputation of missing values, and the latter has been determined to have a marginal advantage. Ordinary kriging is used to create a gridded monthly rainfall dataset. The spatial and temporal coherence of this dataset are assessed using harmonic analysis, self-organizing maps, and intercomparison with global datasets. The self-organizing map delineates Ethiopia into nine homogeneous rainfall regimes, which is consistent with seasonal and interannual rainfall variations. The harmonic analysis of the dataset reveals that the annual mode accounts for 55%-85%of the seasonal rainfall variability over western Ethiopia while the semiannual mode accounts for up to 40% over southern Ethiopia. The dataset is also intercompared with Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP), Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP), Climatic Research Unit time series version 3 (CRUTS3.0), Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), and interim ECMWF Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim) rainfall. The correlation of the dataset with global datasets ranges from 0.52 to 0.95 over sparse to dense rain gauge regions. The GPCP rainfall has a small bias and good correlation with the new dataset whereas TRMM and ERA-Interim have relatively large dry and wet biases, respectively. © 2012 American Meteorological Society. Source

Tadesse G.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology
BMC Infectious Diseases | Year: 2014

Background: Human Salmonellosis is one of the major diseases in Ethiopia and several factors including under and mal-nutrition and HIV-AIDS may substantially contribute to its occurrence. Despite its importance, surveillance and monitoring systems are not in place and a comprehensive picture of its epidemiology is not available. The objectives of this study were to systematically review and estimate the prevalence of the disease and identify the dominant serogroups and serotypes in Ethiopia.Methods: Published studies on Salmonellosis in Ethiopia were electronically and manually searched. Eligible studies were selected by using inclusion and exclusion criteria. Generic, methodological and statistical information were extracted from the eligible studies. The extracted data included sample sizes, the numbers of Salmonella positive samples, serogroups and serotypes. The variations in prevalence estimates attributable to heterogeneities were assessed and pooled prevalence was estimated by the random effects model.Results: Twenty studies carried out between 1974 and 2012 were eligible. The pooled prevalence estimates of Salmonella in stool samples of diarrheic children, diarrheic adults and carriers were 8.72%, 5.68%, and 1.08% respectively. Invasive infections in children (5.71%) and adults (0.76%) were significantly different (p < 0.001). Non-typhi isolates accounted for 57.9% of the isolates from patients. Serogroup D occurred more frequently than serogroups C and B. S. Concord, S. Typhi, S. Typhimurium and S. Paratyphi were dominant and accounted for 82.1% of the serotypes isolated from patients.Conclusion: The prevalence of Salmonellosis is considerable and most infections are due to four serotypes. The results imply the need for a policy to promote public hygiene and regularly screen individuals in contact with food items for public consumption. © 2014 Tadesse; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Inganas O.,Linkoping University | Admassie S.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology
Advanced Materials | Year: 2014

The role of materials in civilization is well demonstrated over the centuries and millennia, as materials have come to serve as the classifier of stages of civilization. With the advent of materials science, this relation has become even more pronounced. The pivotal role of advanced materials in industrial economies has not yet been matched by the influence of advanced materials during the transition from agricultural to modern societies. The role of advanced materials in poverty eradication can be very large, in particular if new trajectories of social and economic development become possible. This is the topic of this essay, different in format from the traditional scientific review, as we try to encompass not only two infant technologies of solar energy conversion and storage by means of organic materials, but also the social conditions for introduction of the technologies. The development of organic-based photovoltaic energy conversion has been rapid, and promises to deliver new alternatives to well-established silicon photovoltaics. Our recent development of organic biopolymer composite electrodes opens avenues towards the use of renewable materials in the construction of wooden batteries or supercapacitors for charge storage. Combining these new elements may give different conditions for introduction of energy technology in areas now lacking electrical grids, but having sufficient solar energy inputs. These areas are found close to the equator, and include some of the poorest regions on earth. Recent developments in printed organic photovoltaic materials and devices are presented. We also discuss the electrochemical storage of electricity by using organic materials, with perspectives on how to integrate these into rural electrical grids in sub-Saharan Africa. The combination of renewable materials for storage and thin-film organics for conversion could enable a break out of the technology lock-in that comes with centralized power plants and grids. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

Wang E.,Chalmers University of Technology | Mammo W.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Andersson M.R.,Chalmers University of Technology
Advanced Materials | Year: 2014

Driven by the potential advantages and promising applications of organic solar cells, donor-acceptor (D-A) polymers have been intensively investigated in the past years. One of the strong electron-withdrawing groups that were widely used as acceptors for the construction of D-A polymers for applications in polymer solar cells and FETs is isoindigo. The isoindigo-based polymer solar cells have reached efficiencies up to 7% and hole mobilities as high as 3.62 cm2 V-1 s-1 have been realized by FETs based on isoindigo polymers. Over one hundred isoindigo-based small molecules and polymers have been developed in only three years. This review is an attempt to summarize the structures and properties of the isoindigo-based polymers and small molecules that have been reported in the literature since their inception in 2010. Focus has been given only to the syntheses and device performances of those polymers and small molecules that were designed for use in solar cells and FETs. Attempt has been made to deduce structure-property relationships that would guide the design of isoindigo-based materials. It is expected that this review will present useful guidelines for the design of efficient isoindigo-based materials for applications in solar cells and FETs. This review summarizes isoindigobased polymers and small molecules for bulk-heterojunction solar cells and field-effect transistors (FETs). The structure-property relationships are deduced based on results from the literature and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Isoindigo-based materials are anticipated to play an important role in the development of solar cells and FETs due to their appropriate energy levels, high absorption coefficients, and mobility. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

Background: Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) particularly soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) and schistosomiasis are among neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) globally. Apart from being associated with anemia, malabsorption and retarded cognitive development these diseases are complicating the clinical picture of more serious infections like HIV, TB and malaria. Renewed and up-to-date information on the epidemiology of IPIs in more vulnerable groups such as irrigated-farm workers and prisoners would significantly contribute towards improving the health condition of such at-risk groups. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of IPIs among prison inmates and tobacco farm workers in Shewa-Robit, north-central Ethiopia in November 2008. A total of 236 fecal samples were examined microscopically to detect helminths and/or protozoa using direct-smear and formol-ether concentration methods. Results: Overall, 8 intestinal parasite species have been recovered singly or in combinations from 146 (61.8%) samples. The prevalence in prison population (88/121 = 72.7%) was significantly higher than that in tobacco farm (58/115 = 50.4%). There were no significant differences in the prevalence of IPI by most socio-demographics. Except for hookworm there was no significant difference in parasite prevalence between different age-groups though the frequency of individual parasites slightly varied between the age-groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that inmates were more likely to acquire IPIs than tobacco-farm workers (Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.52-4.5). In addition, participants who did not report past treatment for IPIs were more likely to acquire IPIs than participants who self-reported treatment for IPIs in the past twelve months (OR = 3.25, 95% CI = 1.75-6.06). All other socio-demographics were not significantly associated with IPIs in univariate analysis. Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii was the most frequently encountered species in both study sites accounting for 48.8 and 51.7 percent of the positives in prison and tobacco farm population respectively. Other intestinal parasites detected, with slight variation in prevalence in the two study areas, were hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Schistosoma mansoni, Strongyloides stercolaris, Hymenolepis nana and Taenia sp. 35.5 and 33.0 percent of the total positive cases were mixed infections in Shewa Robit prison and tobacco farm, respectively. Conclusion: The results show that IPIs are common health problems in the studied populations. © 2014 Hassen Mamo. Source

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