Ningbo Addiction Research and Treatment Center

Ningbo, China

Ningbo Addiction Research and Treatment Center

Ningbo, China
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Xie X.,Ningbo University | Xie X.,Ningbo Institute of Microcirculation and Henbane | Xu L.,Zhejiang University | Liu H.,Ningbo University | And 9 more authors.
Neuroscience Letters | Year: 2013

By balancing the ratios of dopamine and norepinephrine, dopamine beta hydroxylase (DBH) plays an important role in brain reward circuit that is involved with behavioral effects of heroin addiction. DBH -1021C/T (rs1611115) is a functional variant with strong correlation with plasma DBH activity and several nerval and psychic disorders. In the present study, we have collected 333 male cases with heroin addiction and 200 male healthy controls to explore the role of -1021C/T in heroin addiction. There is no evidence of association between -1021C/T and heroin addiction on both genotype and allele levels (P> 0.05). In the injection subgroup of cases, -1021TT carriers have longer heroin addiction time (P< 0.001) and higher dosage of self-administered heroin (P= 0.045) than carriers with -1021CC or -1021CT, suggesting that patients with TT genotype are likely to have more progressive style of heroin users with injection route. In conclusion, our results support -1021TT genotype may be implicated with a more progressive nature of heroin addiction, although DBH -1021C/T is unlikely to be involved in the risk of heroin addiction. © 2013.


Liu Y.,Ningbo University | Lin D.,Ningbo University | Wu B.,Ningbo University | Zhou W.,Ningbo University | Zhou W.,Ningbo Addiction Research and Treatment Center
Brain Research Bulletin | Year: 2016

Ketamine is a noncompetitive antagonist of N-methyl-D-asparate (NMDA) receptor and has been long used as an anesthetic agent in humans and veterinary medicine. The present article reviews the epidemiology, pharmacology, neurochemistry, and treatment of ketamine abuse. Ketamine has a unique mood controlling property and a number of studies have demonstrated a significant and rapid antidepressant effect of ketamine. However, the therapeutic value of ketamine to treat psychiatric disorders faces a major challenge that ketamine also owns significant reinforcing and toxic effects. Its abuse has posted severe harms on individuals and society. Disrupted learning and memory processing has long been related with ketamine use. It is hypothesized that ketamine blocks NMDA receptors on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons inside the thalamic reticular nucleus, which leads to disinhibition of dopaminergic neurons and increased release of dopamine. Currently, there is no specific treatment for treating every ketamine patient presenting peripheral toxicity. Interestingly, ketamine psychotherapy has been suggested to be a promising approach to treat addiction of other drugs. Future research can continue to develop creative ways to investigate potential mechanism and treatments related to ketamine abuse that have posted severe individual and social harms. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.


Hu A.,Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Hu A.,Ningbo No 2 Hospital | Lai M.,Ningbo Addiction Research and Treatment Center | Wei J.,Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | And 4 more authors.
Neuroscience Letters | Year: 2013

Augmentation of extinction with learning enhancing therapy may offer an effective strategy to combat heroin relapse. Our lab previously found that electroacupuncture (EA) not only significantly reduced cue-induced reinstatement of heroin seeking but also exhibited a promoting effect on the ability of learning and memory. In the present study, we further investigated the effects of EA on the extinction of heroin-seeking behavior in rats with a history of intravenous heroin self-administration. We trained Sprague-Dawley rats to nose-poke for i.v. heroin either daily for 4. h or 25 infusions for 14 consecutive days; then the rats underwent 7 daily 3. h extinction sessions in the operant chamber. To assess EA's effects on the extinction response of heroin-associated cues, 2. Hz EA was administered 1. h before each of the 7 extinction sessions. We also applied immunohistochemistry to detect FosB-positive nuclei in the nucleus accumbens core. We found that EA treatment facilitated the extinction response of heroin seeking but did not alter the locomotor activity in an open field testing environment. EA stimulation attenuated the FosB expression in the core of the nucleus accumbens, a brain region involved in the learning and execution of motor responses. Altogether, these results suggest that EA may provide a novel nonpharmacological approach to enhance extinction learning when combined with extinction therapy for the treatment of heroin addiction. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Ma H.,Ningbo University | Ke Y.-T.,Ningbo University | Chen L.-H.,Ningbo University | Zhou W.-H.,Ningbo University | Zhou W.-H.,Ningbo Addiction Research and Treatment Center
Chinese Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology | Year: 2015

Development of medicines that target drug addiction and relapse is still a hot spot in the area of addiction. So far, only a few anti-addiction drugs with potentially therapeutic effects have been found. N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) has antioxidant properties. In the central nervous system, NAC acts on cystine/glutamate transporters located mainly in glial cells, increases the concentration of glutamate in the synaptic cleft, and regulates indirectly the glutamatergic and dopaminergic transmissions. Clinical studies have proved that NAC has therapeutic efficacy on drug addiction and relapse, indicating that NAC may be used as a new target for addiction treatment. This review focuses on the regulating mechanism of NAC for drug addiction, and summarizes the progress in clinical trials of NAC for drug addiction in order to provide evidence for its clinical applications.


Ke Y.-T.,Ningbo University | Zhou W.-H.,Ningbo University | Zhou W.-H.,Ningbo Addiction Research and Treatment Center
Chinese Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology | Year: 2015

Epidemiological studies reveal that individuals who are engaged in regular aerobic exercise are less prone to drug abuse. Results from animal and human studies indicate that exercise may serve as a potential intervention for drug dependence, producing beneficial and lasting protective effects on different phases of the addiction process. The beneficial effects are connected with neural adaptation which is related to drug dependence. Exercise can regulate various neurotransmitter systems and intracellular signal transmission, increasing levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factors, promoting hippocampal neurogenesis and regulating epigenetic molecular mechanisms in resistance to and/or recovery from drug addiction. Therefore, exercise plays an important role in reducing drug carving and preventing relapse. Moreover, exercise generally produces different neurobiological mechanisms, depending on the level/type/timing of exercise exposure, the stage of addiction, the drug involved, and the subject population. This paper, from the perspective of neurobiological mechanisms, reviews exercise-based interventions alone or as an adjunct to other strategies for treating drug addiction.


Liu Y.,Ningbo University | Li L.,Ningbo Addiction Research and Treatment Center | Zhang Y.,Ningbo Addiction Research and Treatment Center | Zhang L.,Ningbo University | And 6 more authors.
Substance Abuse: Treatment, Prevention, and Policy | Year: 2013

Background: In China, the Compulsory Detoxification Centres are the main response for people who use illegal drugs. Due to high relapse rates among people released from the Compulsory Detoxification Centres, it is likely that they may seek medical help, including Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) services, at some point. Therefore, better understanding of the attitudes and beliefs of people in the Compulsory Detoxification Centres can help to provide more adequate response to opioid dependence.Methods: In total, 329 detained heroin users and 112 active MMT clients were recruited from a local Compulsory Detoxification Centre and MMT clinic, respectively. The survey contained specific questions relating to attitudes and beliefs regarding MMT.Results: Participants at the Compulsory Detoxification Centre and the MMT clinic expressed different opinions, regarding positive and negative attitudes and beliefs towards MMT. In addition, participants from both sites hold certain negative attitudes and beliefs about methadone despite their acknowledgement of the positive effects of MMT. Finally, participants at the Compulsory Detoxification Centre and the MMT clinic reported distinctive treatment preferences, with the former preferring community-based treatment and the latter MMT.Conclusions: Developing targeted education about MMT for people at the Compulsory Detoxification Centres could help improve access to accurate and evidence-based health and treatment information. The study may also help providers understand and adjust services needed for target population in the future. © 2013 Liu et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


PubMed | Ningbo Kangning Hospital, Wake forest University, Ningbo University and Ningbo Addiction Research and Treatment Center
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2015

The current study was designed to investigate the effect of abstinence in combination with environmental enrichment (EE) on cardiac and renal toxicity induced by 2 weeks of ketamine self-administration (SA) in rodents. In Experiment 1, one group of rats underwent ketamine SA for 14 days. In Experiment 2, the animals completed 2 weeks of ketamine SA followed by 2 and 4 weeks of abstinence. In Experiment 3, animals underwent 14 days of ketamine SA and 4 weeks of abstinence in which isolated environment (IE) and EE was introduced. The corresponding control groups were included for each experiment. Two weeks of ketamine SA caused significant increases in organ weight, Apoptosis Stimulating Fragment/Kidney Injury Molecule-1, and apoptotic level of heart and kidney. The extended length of withdrawal from ketamine SA partially reduced toxicity on the heart and kidney. Finally, introduction of EE during the period of abstinence greatly promoted the effect of abstinence on ketamine-induced cardiac and renal toxicity. The interactive effect of EE and abstinence was promising to promote the recovery of cardiac and renal toxicity of ketamine.


Xu X.,Zhejiang University | Ji H.,Zhejiang University | Liu G.,Zhejiang University | Wang Q.,Zhejiang University | And 6 more authors.
Gene | Year: 2016

As a member of the neurotrophic factor family, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in the survival and differentiation of neurons. The aim of our work was to evaluate the role of BDNF promoter methylation in drug addiction. A total of 60 drug abusers (30 heroin and 30 methylamphetamine addicts) and 52 healthy age- and gender-matched controls were recruited for the current case control study. Bisulfite pyrosequencing technology was used to determine the methylation levels of five CpGs (CpG1-5) on the BDNF promoter. Among the five CpGs, CpG5 methylation was significantly lower in drug abusers than controls. Moreover, significant associations were found between CpG5 methylation and addictive phenotypes including tension-anxiety, anger-hostility, fatigue-inertia, and depression-dejection. In addition, luciferase assay showed that the DNA fragment of BDNF promoter played a key role in the regulation of gene expression. Our results suggest that BDNF promoter methylation is associated with drug addiction, although further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms by which BDNF promoter methylation contributes to the pathophysiology of drug addiction. © 2016 .


PubMed | Ningbo Addiction Research and Treatment Center and Zhejiang University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Gene | Year: 2016

As a member of the neurotrophic factor family, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in the survival and differentiation of neurons. The aim of our work was to evaluate the role of BDNF promoter methylation in drug addiction. A total of 60 drug abusers (30 heroin and 30 methylamphetamine addicts) and 52 healthy age- and gender-matched controls were recruited for the current case control study. Bisulfite pyrosequencing technology was used to determine the methylation levels of five CpGs (CpG1-5) on the BDNF promoter. Among the five CpGs, CpG5 methylation was significantly lower in drug abusers than controls. Moreover, significant associations were found between CpG5 methylation and addictive phenotypes including tension-anxiety, anger-hostility, fatigue-inertia, and depression-dejection. In addition, luciferase assay showed that the DNA fragment of BDNF promoter played a key role in the regulation of gene expression. Our results suggest that BDNF promoter methylation is associated with drug addiction, although further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms by which BDNF promoter methylation contributes to the pathophysiology of drug addiction.

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