Tao R.,Addiction Medicine Center |
Li H.,Beijing Shijian Integrated Medicine Science Institute
Journal of Affective Disorders | Year: 2015
Background Depression disorder is a mental illness of high recurrence rate and its pathological mechanism is still unclear. 5-HT is the most widely studied neurotransmitter and high level of serum uric acid (SUA) can result from the increased oxygenolysis of nucleic acid. Aim of the present study is to explore the pathogenesis of adolescence depression through the study of SUA and 5-HT level in adolescent depressive patients.Methods The SUA of 152 adolescent depressive patients and normal adolescents were tested respectively and 5-HT levels among them were analyzed.Results The SUA level of cases (434.57±102.34 μmol/L) was significantly higher than controls (330.18±62.59 μmol/L), P<0.001; the 5-HT level of cases (20.86±4.58) was significantly lower than controls (24.03±5.76) (P<0.005) and had a significant negative correlation with SUA level (r=-0.49, P<0.01).Limitations The sample size was relatively small and the patients were only male from General Hospital of Beijing Military Region.Conclusions High level of SUA can be used as a biochemical index for the early diagnose of adolescence depression; adolescence depression may be due to DNA oxidative damage of neurons in brain. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tao R.,Addiction Medicine Center |
Huang X.,Addiction Medicine Center |
Wang J.,Addiction Medicine Center |
Zhang H.,Addiction Medicine Center |
And 2 more authors.
Addiction | Year: 2010
Objective The objective of this study was to develop diagnostic criteria for internet addiction disorder (IAD) and to evaluate the validity of our proposed diagnostic criteria for discriminating non-dependent from dependent internet use in the general population. Methods This study was conducted in three stages: the developmental stage (110 subjects in the survey group; 408 subjects in the training group), where items of the proposed diagnostic criteria were developed and tested; the validation stage (n = 405), where the proposed criteria were evaluated for criterion-related validity; and the clinical stage (n = 150), where the criteria and the global clinical impression of IAD were evaluated by more than one psychiatrist to determine inter-rater reliability. Results The proposed internet addiction diagnostic criteria consisted of symptom criterion (seven clinical symptoms of IAD), clinically significant impairment criterion (functional and psychosocial impairments), course criterion (duration of addiction lasting at least 3 months, with at least 6 hours of non-essential internet usage per day) and exclusion criterion (exclusion of dependency attributed to psychotic disorders). A diagnostic score of 2 + 1, where the first two symptoms (preoccupation and withdrawal symptoms) and at least one of the five other symptoms (tolerance, lack of control, continued excessive use despite knowledge of negative effects/affects, loss of interests excluding internet, and use of the internet to escape or relieve a dysphoric mood) was established. Inter-rater reliability was 98%. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the proposed diagnostic criteria may be useful for the standardization of diagnostic criteria for IAD. © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Xiuqin H.,Addiction Medicine Center |
Huimin Z.,Addiction Medicine Center |
Mengchen L.,Chinese Peoples Liberation Army |
Jinan W.,Addiction Medicine Center |
And 2 more authors.
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking | Year: 2010
The objectives of this study were to compare the personality profiles of adolescent males with and without Internet addiction disorder (IAD), and to determine if IAD is associated with specific parental rearing behaviors. A total of 304 subjects (204 IAD positive and 100 IAD negative controls) completed three instruments: Symptom Checklist-90-revision (SCL-90-R), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised (EPQ-R), and Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran-My Memories of Upbringing (EMBU). SCL-90-R profiles of adolescents with IAD revealed comparatively higher mean scores for all of the nine domains, and significantly higher scores for obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, and paranoid ideation; the mean global symptom index of adolescents with IAD was also significantly higher by approximately 10%. EPQ profiles of adolescents with IAD showed that Internet-dependent individuals tended to exhibit a significantly lower degree of extraversion and a significantly higher degree of psychoticism when compared with the control group. EMBU profiles revealed that adolescents with IAD generally rated both maternal and paternal rearing practices as lacking in emotional warmth, being over-involved, rejecting, and punitive (mothers only). The results of this study confirm that IAD often occurs concurrently with mental symptoms and personality traits such as introversion and psychoticism. Adolescents with IAD consistently rated parental rearing behaviors as being over-intrusive, punitive, and lacking in responsiveness. These findings suggest that the influences of parenting style and family function are important factors in the development of Internet dependency. © 2010, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.