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Cambridge, United Kingdom

Wake N.C.,University of Birmingham | Ricketts C.J.,University of Birmingham | Morris M.R.,University of Birmingham | Morris M.R.,University of Wolverhampton | And 11 more authors.
Human Mutation | Year: 2013

Investigation of rare familial forms of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has led to the identification of genes such as VHL and MET that are also implicated in the pathogenesis of sporadic RCC. In order to identify a novel candidate renal tumor suppressor gene, we characterized the breakpoints of a constitutional balanced translocation, t(5;19)(p15.3;q12), associated with familial RCC and found that a previously uncharacterized gene UBE2QL1 was disrupted by the chromosome 5 breakpoint. UBE2QL1 mRNA expression was downregulated in 78.6% of sporadic RCC and, although no intragenic mutations were detected, gene deletions and promoter region hypermethylation were detected in 17.3% and 20.3%, respectively, of sporadic RCC. Reexpression of UBE2QL1 in a deficient RCC cell line suppressed anchorage-independent growth. UBE2QL1 shows homology to the E2 class of ubiquitin conjugating enzymes and we found that (1) UBE2QL1 possesses an active-site cysteine (C88) that is monoubiquitinated in vivo, and (2) UBE2QL1 interacts with FBXW7 (an F box protein providing substrate recognition to the SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase) and facilitates the degradation of the known FBXW7 targets, CCNE1 and mTOR. These findings suggest UBE2QL1 as a novel candidate renal tumor suppressor gene. © 2013 The Authors. *Human Mutation published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Solomon B.D.,Human Genome Research Institutes | Lacbawan F.,Human Genome Research Institutes | Lacbawan F.,New York University | Mercier S.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 40 more authors.
Journal of Medical Genetics | Year: 2010

Background: Holoprosencephaly (HPE), the most common malformation of the human forebrain, may be due to mutations in genes associated with non-syndromic HPE. Mutations in ZIC2, located on chromosome 13q32, are a common cause of non-syndromic, non-chromosomal HPE. Objective: To characterise genetic and clinical findings in patients with ZIC2 mutations. Methods: Through the National Institutes of Health and collaborating centres, DNA from approximately 1200 individuals with HPE spectrum disorders was analysed for sequence variations in ZIC2. Clinical details were examined and all other known cases of mutations in ZIC2 were included through a literature search. Results: By direct sequencing of DNA samples of an unselected group of unrelated patients with HPE in our NIH laboratory, ZIC2 mutations were found in 8.4% (49/ 582) of probands. A total of 157 individuals from 119 unrelated kindreds are described, including 141 patients with intragenic sequence determined mutations in ZIC2. Only 39/157 patients have previously been clinically described. Unlike HPE due to mutations in other genes, most mutations occur de novo and the distribution of HPE types differs significantly from that of non-ZIC2 related HPE. Evidence is presented for the presence of a novel facial phenotype which includes bitemporal narrowing, upslanting palpebral fissures, a short nose with anteverted nares, a broad and well demarcated philtrum, and large ears. Conclusions: HPE due to ZIC2 mutations is distinct from that due to mutations in other genes. This may shed light on the mechanisms involved in formation of the forebrain and face and will help direct genetic counselling and diagnostic strategies.

Aggelis V.,St Jamess Hospital | Craven R.A.,St Jamess Hospital | Peng J.,St Jamess Hospital | Harnden P.,St Jamess Hospital | And 7 more authors.
International Journal of Oncology | Year: 2013

Identification of novel biomarkers and targets in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remains a priority and one cellular compartment that is a rich potential source of such molecules is the plasma membrane. A shotgun proteomic analysis of cell surface proteins enriched by cell surface biotinylation and avidin affinity chromatography was explored using the UMRC2- renal cancer cell line, which lacks von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumour suppressor gene function, to determine whether proteins of interest could be detected. Of the 814 proteins identified ~22% were plasma membrane or membrane-associated, including several with known associations with cancer. This included β-dystroglycan, the transmembrane subunit of the DAG1 gene product. VHL-dependent changes in the form of β-dystroglycan were detected in UMRC2-/+VHL transfectants. Deglycosylation experiments showed that this was due to differential sialylation. Analysis of normal kidney cortex and conventional RCC tissues showed that a similar change also occurred in vivo. Investigation of the expression of genes involved in glycosylation in UMRC2-/+VHL cells using a focussed microarray highlighted a number of enzymes involved in sialylation; upregulation of bifunctional UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase/N- acetylmannosamine kinase (GNE) was validated in UMRC2- cells compared with their +VHL counterparts and also found in conventional RCC tissue. These results implicate VHL in the regulation of glycosylation and raise interesting questions regarding the extent and importance of such changes in RCC.

Villeneuve H.,Center Hospitalier Of Luniversite Of Montreal | Tremblay S.,Laval University | Tremblay S.,Center Hospitalier Affilie | Galiatsatos P.,Jewish General Hospital | And 7 more authors.
Familial Cancer | Year: 2011

Cowden syndrome (CS) is a cancer predisposition syndrome caused by germline mutations in the PTEN tumor suppressor gene. It is associated with an increased risk of thyroid, breast and endometrial cancer but many manifestations can be found in the head and neck region, some of which are pathognomonic. Here we report a 35-year-old male referred by his dentist for evaluation of a lesion located near the retromolar trigone. Comprehensive clinical examination revealed papillomatous skin lesions, macrocephaly and gingival hypertrophy. Histopathological examination of the lesion showed an acinic cell carcinoma (ACC) of minor salivary gland origin. Analysis of the PTEN gene identified a germline R130Q mutation in exon 5, confirming the diagnosis of CS, but no loss of heterozygosity was seen in DNA extracted from tumor tissue. This is to our knowledge the first case describing an association of ACC of the minor salivary gland with a PTEN-gene related disorder. It emphasizes the importance of head and neck examination in these patients. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Alrashdi I.,St. Georges Hospital Medical School | Levine S.,St. Georges Healthcare Trust | Paterson J.,Addenbrookes Treatment Center | Saxena R.,Mayday University Hospital | And 5 more authors.
Familial Cancer | Year: 2010

Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer is a hereditary cancer syndrome in which affected individuals are at risk for cutaneous and uterine leiomyomas, and renal cancer. Previous reports have stressed the aggressiveness of the renal tumours, often with early metastasis, despite small primary tumour size. Almost all the previously reported patients were adults, and different studies showed variability in penetrance for the renal tumours. We report a patient in whom renal cancer was detected at the age of 11 years at his first routine screening imaging after he was found to carry a fumarate hydratase gene mutation (c.1189G>A) transmitted from his mother. This report serves to emphasize the need to improve guidelines for screening of at risk individuals, including the necessity for predictive genetic testing and early institution of tumour surveillance in childhood. ©Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.

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