Wolverhampton, United Kingdom
Wolverhampton, United Kingdom

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Deasy C.,Lancaster University | Quinton J.N.,Lancaster University | Silgram M.,ADAS Wolverhampton | Bailey A.P.,University of Reading | And 3 more authors.
Agricultural Systems | Year: 2010

Experiences from the Mitigation Options for Phosphorus and Sediment (MOPS) projects, which aim to determine the effectiveness of measures to reduce pollutant loading from agricultural land to surface waters, have been used to contribute to the findings of a recent paper (Kay et al., 2009, Agricultural Systems, 99, 67-75), which reviewed the efficacy of contemporary agricultural stewardship measures for ameliorating the water pollution problems of key concern to the UK water industry. MOPS1 is a recently completed 3-year research project on three different soil types in the UK, which focused on mitigation options for winter cereals. MOPS1 demonstrated that tramlines can be the major pathway for sediment and nutrient transfer from arable hillslopes, and that although minimum tillage, crop residue incorporation, contour cultivation, and beetle banks also have potential to be cost-effective mitigation options, tramline management is the one of the most promising treatments for mitigating diffuse pollution losses, as it was able to reduce sediment and nutrient losses by 72-99% in four out of five site years trialled. Using information from the MOPS projects, this paper builds on the findings of Kay et al. to provide an updated picture of the evidence available and the immediate needs for research in this area. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Thorman R.E.,ADAS Boxworth | Fernanda-Aller M.,ADAS Wolverhampton | Jackson D.R.,ADAS Wolverhampton
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2014

We carried out four replicated field experiments to measure the impacts of immediate incorporation of solid manures on emissions of ammonia (NH3) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Four manures: cattle farmyard manure (FYM); pig FYM; layer manure and broiler manure were applied to the soil surface or immediately incorporated by mouldboard plough, disc or tine. Two of the experiments were carried out on a clay soil and two on a sandy soil to find out whether soil type interacted with incorporation technique to influence emissions of NH3 or N2O. Ammonia emissions were measured for 1 or 2 weeks while N2O emissions were measured for 60 days in one experiment and for a complete year in the other three experiments.Immediate incorporation by plough reduced NH3 emissions by c. 90% and by c. 60% by disc and tine (P<0.001). There was no effect of soil type on NH3 abatement efficiency by plough or tine but the disc was less effective on the coarse sandy soil.Cross-site analysis indicated no effect of incorporation by disc or tine on emissions of N2O-N after 60 days but incorporation by plough increased direct emissions of N2O-N compared with surface application of manure (P<0.001). Direct emissions of N2O-N, at c. 0.67% of total N applied, were substantially greater at the coarse-textured site than at the heavy clay site (0.04% of total N applied; P<0.001). The impact of incorporation on total annual direct emissions of N2O-N differed in the three experiments where emissions were measured for a full year. There was no effect of incorporation on N2O-N emissions in the first experiment on the clay soil, and in the second experiment at this site incorporation by plough or disc, but not tine, reduced direct emissions of N2O (P=0.006). However on the sandy soil direct emissions of N2O-N were increased when manures were incorporated by plough (P=0.002) but not when incorporated by disc or tine.These results confirm that immediate incorporation of solid manures by plough is the most effective means of reducing NH3 emissions following the application of solid manures. The results also indicate that immediate incorporation of solid manures to reduce NH3 emissions does not necessarily increase emissions of N2O. However, the impacts of immediate incorporation on emissions of N2O may be related to soil type with a greater possibility of emission increases on coarse sandy soils. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Fernanda-Aller M.,ADAS Wolverhampton | Jackson D.R.,Cambridge | Thorman R.,ADAS Boxworth
Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems | Year: 2016

In four replicated field experiments the impacts of immediate incorporation of solid manures on ammonia (NH3) and direct nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and apparent nitrogen recovery (ANR) of manure-N were measured. The impacts of immediate incorporation on nitrate (NO3 −) leaching were modelled. Four manures: cattle farmyard manure (FYM); pig FYM; layer manure and broiler manure were applied to the soil surface or immediately incorporated by mouldboard plough, disc or tine. Two of the experiments were carried out on a clay soil and two on a sandy soil. There was, on average, no significant effect of application technique on ANR but there were significant increases in ANR following immediate incorporation in three experiments. Recovery of N by the succeeding crop was c. 8 % for cattle FYM, c. 13 % for pig FYM and c. 20 % for the poultry manures. Only c. 30 % of the applied N could be accounted for from measurements of NH3, N2O and ANR and modelling of NO3 −. While immediate incorporation by plough increased direct N2O emissions from the sandy soil and all methods of immediate incorporation in autumn increased modelled estimates of NO3 − leaching, these increases were only a small proportion of the NH3–N conserved which was probably either recovered by the crop or remained in the soil. Therefore concerns over so-called ‘pollution swapping’ should not be a barrier to the immediate incorporation of solid livestock manures in order to reduce emissions of NH3 and increase crop recovery of manure-N. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht


Nicholson F.A.,ADAS Gleadthorpe | Bhogal A.,ADAS Gleadthorpe | Chadwick D.,Bangor University | Gill E.,ADAS Wolverhampton | And 9 more authors.
Soil Use and Management | Year: 2013

MANNER-NPK (MANure Nutrient Evaluation Routine) is a decision support tool for quantifying manure (and other organic material) crop available nutrient supply. The user-friendly design of an earlier version of MANNER was retained, but in response to user and stakeholder feedback, additional functionality was included to underpin new and revised nitrogen (N) transformation/loss modules (covering ammonia volatilization, nitrate leaching and nitrous oxide/di-nitrogen emissions, and organic N mineralization) and also to estimate manure phosphorus (as P2O5), potassium (as K2O), sulphur (as SO3) and magnesium (as MgO) supply. Notably, MANNER-NPK provides N availability estimates for following crops through the mineralization of organic N. Validation of the crop available N supply estimates was undertaken by comparing predicted values with data from more than 200 field experimental measurements. For cattle, pig and poultry manures, there was good agreement (P < 0.001) between predicted and measured fertilizer N replacement values, indicating that MANNER-NPK provides robust estimates of manure crop available N supply and N losses to the wider environment. © 2013 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2013 British Society of Soil Science.


Jackson D.R.,ADAS Wolverhampton | Chadwick D.R.,Rothamsted Research | Crookes M.,ADAS Gleadthorpe | Sagoo E.,ADAS Boxworth | Smith K.A.,ADAS Wolverhampton
Journal of Agricultural Science | Year: 2013

Woodchip pads can be a sustainable alternative to the overwintering of stock on grassland or in conventional housing and can offer benefits in improved animal performance, improved health and environmentally sustainable options for the management of the effluent resulting from the animal excreta (dung, urine and rainfall over the pad). Detailed observations were made on effluent flow and quality from woodchip pads on two commercial farms in the UK, one in Powys (Wales) and the other in Leicestershire (England), over a period of 8 months in 2009/10. Flow data and hydrological characteristics, reported in the companion to the current paper (Jackson & Smith 2012), were combined with the results of effluent sample and soiled woodchip analyses, together with records of animal numbers and activity on the pads, to calculate nutrient fluxes and nutrient balances across the pad for defined periods. Nutrient balances showed that, of the estimated nutrient inputs in animal excreta deposited on the pad, only 0·05-0·10 of the N and P were contained in the effluent draining from the pad, with the rest (>0·90 of N and P inputs) retained in the solids accumulating in the surface layers of soiled woodchip, 'spent timber residues' (STR). The STR was similar in analysis to straw-based farmyard manure (FYM), high in organic N, and land spreading of this material should be managed in a similar way to FYM. It also appears suitable for application to grassland, except when based on coarse woodchips. These results confirm the hypothesis that the effluent draining from the pads should be considered as consistently similar to dirty water rather than slurry, as in the current rules associated with Nitrate Vulnerable Zones (NVZs) in England and Wales. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2012.


Nicholson F.A.,ADAS Gleadthorpe | Humphries S.,ADAS Wolverhampton | Anthony S.G.,ADAS Wolverhampton | Smith S.R.,Imperial College London | And 2 more authors.
Soil Use and Management | Year: 2012

Agricultural Land and Organic 'Waste': A National Capacity Estimator (ALOWANCE) is a GIS-based tool that estimates the available agricultural landbank in England and Wales for recycling organic materials based on a number of physical and practical constraints, and legislative restrictions. It can be used to identify areas where there is a potential shortage or surplus of available agricultural land and to determine the length of time for which the agricultural landbank would continue to be available to receive organic materials. Two versions of ALOWANCE have been developed. ALOWANCE-PLUS is a PC-based tool that provides the full functionality of ALOWANCE to a small number of 'expert' users. It incorporates scenario testing capabilities, allowing the agricultural landbank capacity to be calculated interactively. ALOWANCE-ONLINE is a web-based version that provides information to 'general' users, including pre-selected map 'layers' (generated from ALOWANCE-PLUS) and a simple query tool. Results from ALOWANCE-PLUS showed that after exclusions and after accounting for current sources of organic materials (livestock manures, biosolids, compost, paper crumble and digestate), the estimated agricultural landbank in England and Wales for the addition of 'new' sources of organic materials was c. 5.1million ha. Spatial representations showed that in some parts of the country (e.g. north-west England), the agricultural landbank was already under 'pressure' and transport of any future emerging sources of organic materials away from these areas may be required. © 2012 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2012 British Society of Soil Science.


Cuttle S.P.,Institute of Grassland And Environmental Research | Newell-Price J.P.,ADAS Gleadthorpe | Harris D.,ADAS Leeds | Chadwick D.R.,Rothamsted Research | And 9 more authors.
Soil Use and Management | Year: 2016

We describe the development of a manual of methods for mitigating diffuse water pollution from agriculture and its important influence on policy and practice in England and Wales. The objective of the 'User Manual' was to provide policy makers and those implementing policies with information about the cost, effectiveness and applicability of potential methods in a form that would be readily understood by non-specialists. The 'User Manual' was based on earlier reports synthesizing available research data and, where data were unavailable, used expert elicitation. The outcome generated 44 potential methods (under the broad categories of land use, soil management, livestock management, fertilizer management, manure management and farm infrastructure) and described the simultaneous impact of applying each method on losses of nitrate, phosphorus and faecal indicator organisms relative to baseline losses. Estimates of cost and effectiveness were presented at the whole-farm level for seven model farm types. Methods differed widely in their cost-effectiveness and applicability to the different model farms. Advantages and limitations of the approach are discussed and subsequent developments of the original 'User Manual' are described, together with the opinions of catchment officers who have used the 'User Manual' to implement mitigation methods on farms. Journal compilation © 2016 British Society of Soil Science.


Taylor S.H.,University of York | Parker W.E.,ADAS Wolverhampton | Douglas A.E.,University of York | Douglas A.E.,Cornell University
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata | Year: 2012

Variation in phloem sap composition is important in determining aphid performance and is known to occur at both diurnal timescales and in response to plant age. For field grown potato plants, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae), we determined diurnal variation in components of phloem sap, measured by ethylene diamine tetra-acetate exudation, and tested for impacts of plant age. The effects of plant age and diurnal cycles on honeydew production by Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (both Hemiptera: Aphididae) were also quantified. Both the ratio of sucrose to amino acids and the composition of amino acids in phloem sap varied significantly with time of day. Dietary essential amino acids contributed a smaller proportion of amino acids in the phloem sap of older plants and during early phases of the diurnal cycle. The only significant effect on aphid honeydew production was of the diurnal cycle for Ma. euphorbiae, although increased honeydew production during the day when compared with the production at night, was consistent across the two species. In contrast with studies carried out at seasonal scales, we found limited evidence for variation in phloem sap composition in response to plant age, consistent with our results for honeydew production. These data highlight the need for improved understanding of how seasonal and diurnal physiology of plants influence performance in phloem sap feeding insects. © 2011 The Authors. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata © 2011 The Netherlands Entomological Society.


Del Prado A.,Rothamsted Research | Misselbrook T.,Rothamsted Research | Chadwick D.,Rothamsted Research | Hopkins A.,Rothamsted Research | And 6 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2011

Multiple demands are placed on farming systems today. Society, national legislation and market forces seek what could be seen as conflicting outcomes from our agricultural systems, e.g. food quality, affordable prices, a healthy environmental, consideration of animal welfare, biodiversity etc., Many of these demands, or desirable outcomes, are interrelated, so reaching one goal may often compromise another and, importantly, pose a risk to the economic viability of the farm.SIMS DAIRY, a farm-scale model, was used to explore this complexity for dairy farm systems. SIMS DAIRY integrates existing approaches to simulate the effect of interactions between farm management, climate and soil characteristics on losses of nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon. The effects on farm profitability and attributes of biodiversity, milk quality, soil quality and animal welfare are also included. SIMS DAIRY can also be used to optimise fertiliser N.In this paper we discuss some limitations and strengths of using SIMS DAIRY compared to other modelling approaches and propose some potential improvements. Using the model we evaluated the sustainability of organic dairy systems compared with conventional dairy farms under non-optimised and optimised fertiliser N use. Model outputs showed for example, that organic dairy systems based on grass-clover swards and maize silage resulted in much smaller total GHG emissions per l of milk and slightly smaller losses of NO 3 leaching and NO x emissions per l of milk compared with the grassland/maize-based conventional systems. These differences were essentially because the conventional systems rely on indirect energy use for 'fixing' N compared with biological N fixation for the organic systems. SIMS DAIRY runs also showed some other potential benefits from the organic systems compared with conventional systems in terms of financial performance and soil quality and biodiversity scores. Optimisation of fertiliser N timings and rates showed a considerable scope to reduce the (GHG emissions per l milk too). © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Woodchip pads can be a sustainable alternative to the overwintering of stock on grassland or in conventional housing and can offer benefits in improved animal performance, improved health and environmentally sustainable options for the management of animal excreta (dung, urine and the resulting effluent). Novel flow measuring equipment was developed to monitor effluent drainage from two woodchip pads sited on commercial farms in the UK, one in Powys (Wales, UK) and the other in Leicestershire (England, UK). Observations were made over 8 months in 2009/10. The aim was to assess both hydrological characteristics and nutrient fluxes. Flow monitoring, based on the use of tipping bucket or the principles of an overshot water wheel, was required to be capable of diverting a sample into a storage tank for sub-sampling and subsequent analysis. Estimates of pad outputs through evaporation and sub-surface drainage accounted for 0·98-1·01 of total inputs from precipitation and animal excreta, with evaporation and pad drainage representing 0·47-0·63 and 0·34-0·51 of total inputs, respectively. The resulting scientific information is of value in the synthesis of guidelines for design, construction and management of woodchip pads. Detailed analysis of flow and precipitation data, coupled with column absorption studies to evaluate moisture retention in the woodchip matrix, were used to consider the development of modelling approaches, with the potential to predict drainage outputs across a range of geographical, weather and pad management situations. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2012.

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