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Meden Vale, United Kingdom

Zhang Y.,Rothamsted Research | Collins A.L.,Rothamsted Research | Hodgkinson R.,ADAS Gleadthorpe
Soil Use and Management | Year: 2016

Both experimental and monitoring studies have underscored the importance of the agricultural subsurface drain delivery pathway for sediment and phosphorus in England and Wales. Modelling studies to date using the Phosphorus and Sediment Yield CHaracterisation In Catchments (PSYCHIC) model have included a default drain connectivity coefficient of 0.9. Recent telephone and field-based surveys in three Demonstration Test Catchments of farmer attitudes towards field drains and their maintenance have provided new data on the presence of permeable backfill, the frequency of subsoiling, mole draining and maintenance of the freeboard at drain outfalls. These survey returns have therefore been used to revise the default drain connectivity coefficient in PSYCHIC. Revised subsurface drain connectivity at the Water Management Catchment scale ranges from 0.52 to 0.89 with a median of 0.75. Relative to modelled baseline (2010) data using the default drain connectivity of 0.9, the revised estimates of connectivity resulted in a reduction in the prediction of relative contributions from the subsurface drain pathway at national scale of 8.1% for sediment and 6.8% for total phosphorus. Journal compilation © 2016 British Society of Soil Science. Source


Elson H.A.,ADAS Gleadthorpe
World's Poultry Science Journal | Year: 2015

The design and management of different housing systems affect poultry welfare. In order to compare wellbeing in different systems, two main indicators of poor welfare have been used in this paper: contact dermatitis for meat birds and mortality for laying hens. The former is important since broilers may suffer from it for much of the later part of their short lives; the latter because it is generally preceded by suffering due to morbidity. Other welfare indicators are also important, of course, and some of them have been considered alongside these two. Indoor systems, especially laying cages, provide the safest welfare protection but extensive systems, e.g. free-range, provide more freedom and allow the widest behavioural repertoire. However, free-range systems are generally the most difficult to manage and pose the greatest welfare risks, which can sometimes be serious - even causing death. A possible superior safer approach is suggested. © World's Poultry Science Association 2015. Source


Elson H.A.,ADAS Gleadthorpe
British Poultry Science | Year: 2010

1. In order to conduct this anniversary review, 10 excellent papers were carefully selected from the 148 available papers published on housing and husbandry in British Poultry Science (BPS) over the past 50 years. 2. The 10 selected papers on this subject covered mainly the housing and husbandry of laying hens, but two of them dealt with various aspects of broiler production. 3. Aspects of housing considered included a wide range of intensive and extensive systems of broiler and egg production. Specific topics included the effects of husbandry system on bird welfare, including skeletal damage in laying hens and contact dermatitis in broiler chickens, as well as the design and management of nest boxes, perches, feeders and drinkers, conventional laying cages (CCs), furnished laying cages (FCs) and non-cage systems (NCs). 4. A variety of the findings in these and related papers have enlightened our understanding of many aspects of poultry housing and husbandry; most of them have found application in the poultry industry and thus improved its efficiency. © 2010 British Poultry Science Ltd. Source


Worrall F.,Durham University | Bell M.J.,Durham University | Bhogal A.,ADAS Gleadthorpe
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2010

This study proposes a method for assessing the probability that land management interventions will lead to an improvement in the carbon sink represented by peat soils. The method is able to: combine studies of different carbon uptake and release pathways in order to assess changes on the overall carbon or greenhouse gas budget; calculate the probability of the management or restoration leading to an improvement in the budget; calculate the uncertainty in that probability estimate; estimate the equivalent number of complete budgets available from the combination of the literature; test the difference in the outcome of different land management interventions; and provide a method for updating the predicted probabilities as new studies become available. Using this methodology, this study considered the impact of: afforestation, managed burning, drainage, drain-blocking, grazing removal; and revegetation, on the carbon budget of peat soils in the UK. The study showed that afforestation, drain-blocking, revegetation, grazing removal and cessation of managed burning would bring a carbon benefit, whereas deforestation, managed burning and drainage would bring a disbenefit.The predicted probabilities of a benefit are often equivocal as each management type or restoration often leads to increase in uptake in one pathway while increasing losses in another. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source


Bhogal A.,ADAS Gleadthorpe | Nicholson F.A.,ADAS Gleadthorpe | Young I.,University of New England of Australia | Sturrock C.,Waterford Institute of Technology | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Soil Science | Year: 2011

Significant improvements in soil quality have been measured after repeated livestock manure additions at four experimental sites in England. The aim of this study was to determine whether these improvements were caused by the recent addition of fresh organic carbon (OC), or the long-term build-up of soil OC resulting from repeated additions. Livestock manures were withheld ('historic' treatment) from one half of each treatment plot and continued on the other half ('recent' treatment), and a range of soil properties measured 2 years later. Topsoil OC stocks and total nitrogen both increased by approximately 7%, with every 10 t ha-1 manure OC applied, with no difference between the recent or historic additions. Similarly, topsoil available water capacity and porosity increased by approximately 2 and 1% with every 10 t ha-1 OC applied, respectively. Bulk density and penetration resistance decreased, by approximately 1 and 3% with every 10 t ha-1 OC applied, respectively, with again no difference between the recent and historic treatments. Even microbial biomass N and potentially mineralizable N showed no differences between the recent and historic additions, increasing by 8 and 30% with every 10 t ha-1 OC applied, respectively. Only three of the wide range of soil properties measured showed a different response for the recent and historic additions. These were fungal biomass, which increased only with recent additions, extractable potassium, which was proportionally greater in the recent additions, and light-fraction OC, which increased at a greater rate with the recent additions. The results clearly demonstrate that improvements in soil quality and functioning after repeated additions of livestock manures can persist for more than 2 years after the cessation of applications. Overall, it was the total accumulated manure C inputs that had the greatest influence on soil properties, regardless of whether the source of C was from recent or historic (over 2 years old) applications. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 British Society of Soil Science. Source

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