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Bajaj H.,Adarsh Vijendra Institute of Pharmaceutical science | Bajaj H.,Sardar Bhagwan Singh Post Graduate Institute of Biomedical science and Research | Bisht S.,Adarsh Vijendra Institute of Pharmaceutical science | Bisht S.,Sardar Bhagwan Singh Post Graduate Institute of Biomedical science and Research | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2011

Bioavailability is defined as the rate and extent (amount) of absorption of unchanged drug from its dosage form. It is one of the important parameter to achieve desired concentration of drug in systemic circulation for pharmacological response to be shown. A drug with poor bioavailability is one with poor aqueous solubility, slow dissolution rate in biological fluids, poor stability of dissolved drug at physiological pH, poor permeation through biomembrane, extensive presystemic metabolism. Poorly water soluble drugs often require high doses in order to reach therapeutic plasma concentrations after oral administration. Low aqueous solubility is the major problem encountered with formulation development of new chemical entities. Any drug to be absorbed must be present in the form of an aqueous solution at the site of absorption. This review focuses on the various techniques used for the improvement of the Bioavailability of drugs including size reduction, solubilising excipients, colloidal drug delivery systems, pH adjustment, solid dispersion, complexation, co-solvency, micellar solubilisation, hydrotropy etc. The purpose of this review article is to describe the techniques of Bioavailability enhancement for the attainment of effective absorption and improved bioavailability.


Sharma S.,Adarsh Vijendra Institute of Pharmaceutical science | Sharma A.D.,Adarsh Vijendra Institute of Pharmaceutical science | Saharawat R.,Himalayan Institute of Pharmaceutical science
International Journal of Pharmacy and Technology | Year: 2011

Oral administration of different dosage forms is the most commonly used method due to greater flexibility in design of dosage form and high patient acceptance, but the gastrointestinal tract presents several barriers to drug delivery. Different approaches are designed based on prodrug formulation, pH-sensitivity, time-dependency (lag time), microbial degradation and osmotic pressure etc to formulate the different dosage forms like tablets, capsules, multiparticulates, microspheres, liposomes for improving such problems. Our aim in this review is to outline the rational and prominent design strategies behind site-specific oral pulsatile delivery. The present article provides a good review regarding the Site Specific Drug Delivery system. These pulsatile drug delivery system(P.D.D.S) are better than traditional sustained drug delivery systems(D.D.S).These systems release drugs on a programmed pattern means at appropriate time and/or at appropriate site of action.


Sachan N.,IFTM University | Chandra P.,IFTM University | Yadav M.,Adarsh Vijendra Institute of Pharmaceutical science | Pal D.,IFTM University | Ghosh A.K.,IFTM University
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science | Year: 2011

A simple, rapid, accurate, precise, and inexpensive method for the determination of citicoline has been developed using double beam UV spectrophotometer. Ultraviolet spectrophotometric analysis was carried out on a Shimadzu UV 1800 (Shimadzu, Japan) spectrophotometer, in a 1cm quartz cuvette. Citicoline has absorption maxima at 272 nm and the measurements were obtained against distilled water. Beer Lambert's law was obeyed in the concentration range of 5-50μg/ml with correlation coefficient (r2) 0.9998. The analytical method was successfully validated in order to verify its proper selectivity, linearity, accuracy and precision for the goal intended and its further implementation for the quantification of the active compound in the pharmaceutical speciality for quality control.


PubMed | Adarsh Vijendra Institute of Pharmaceutical science
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Acta poloniae pharmaceutica | Year: 2011

The seeds of Alangium salvifolium Linn. have been traditionally reported to exhibit a variety of biological activities, including antidiabetic, anticancer, diuretic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, laxative, and antiepileptic activities. The objective of this study was to verify the traditional claims and to evaluate the seeds of Alangium salvifolium in various organic extracts to screen the antidiabetic, antiepileptic, analgesic and antiinflammatory activities. The chloroform, ethanol, and water extracts of Alangium salvifolium seeds were obtained and subjected for phytochemical screening and evaluated for their pharmacological activities. From the acute toxicity study it was observed that chloroform, ethanol, and aqueous extracts of Alangium salvifolium seeds are non-toxic at a fixed dose of 2000 mg/kg. Among all three extracts ethanol extracts exhibited significant (p < 0.01) antidiabetic, antiepileptic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, terpenoids, steroids and tannins. The results of present study verified the traditional claims made by ayurvedic practitioner. However, the chemical constituents responsible for the pharmacological activities remain to be investigated.


PubMed | Adarsh Vijendra Institute of Pharmaceutical science
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Acta poloniae pharmaceutica | Year: 2011

Emulsification of liquid paraffin oil in aqueous solutions of chitosan without adding any additional surfactant is studied. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the dispersion of castor oil in aqueous phase in the presence of chitosan, and how this polymer promotes the stability of the obtained emulsions. Nevertheless, chitosan promotes emulsion production by increasing the matrix viscosity and provides stabilization of the oil-water interface by forming a dense hydrophilic polyelectrolytic brush on the water side of interface, which presents a significant barrier for coalescence--both steric and electrostatic. Chitosan stabilizes the emulsion mainly by the steric effect. These steric effects generate Van der Waals repulsion forces when two particles are too close. After loading with antiviral drug nevirapine, these emulsions were characterized in terms of phase contrast microscopy, hot stage microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, particle size, zeta potential, viscosity, entrapment efficiency and release studies using dialysis bag method. The prepared emulsions were stable in terms of mean globule size, change in drug content and retain they cationicity. The formulated emulsions are a promising carrier for nevirapine and other lipophilic drugs.


PubMed | Adarsh Vijendra Institute of Pharmaceutical science
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Acta poloniae pharmaceutica | Year: 2012

The aim of this study was to examine the effect of root of C. colocynthis on the biochemical parameters of normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes mellitus was induced by intraperitoneal (120 mg/kg b.w.) injection of alloxan monohydrate for three days and the animals showing blood glucose level in the range of 175-300 mg/dL were selected for study. The blood glucose concentrations of the animals were measured at the beginning of the study and the measurements were repeated on 3rd, 5th and 7th day after the start of the experiment. On day 7, blood was collected by cardiac puncture under mild ether anesthesia. Aqueous extract of roots of Citrullus colocynthis showed significant reduction in blood sugar level (58.70%) when compared with chloroform (34.72%) and ethanol extracts (36.60%) (p < 0.01). The aqueous extracts showed improvement in parameters like body weight, serum creatinine, serum urea and serum protein as well as lipid profile and also restored the serum level of bilirubin total, conjugated bilirubin, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transminase (SGPT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP).


PubMed | Adarsh Vijendra Institute of Pharmaceutical science
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Acta poloniae pharmaceutica | Year: 2010

Objective of present study involves preparation and evaluation of floating microballoons of indometacin as a model drug, to increase its residence time in the stomach without contact with the mucosa. The microballoons were prepared by the emulsion solvent diffusion technique using different ratio of acrylic polymers (Eudragit RS100 and Eudragit S 100) as carriers. The yield of microballoons was up to 91.02 +/- 1.65%. Microballoons showed passable flow properties. On the basis of optical microscopy, particle size range was found to be ranging from 130.90 +/- 12.10 to 170.58 +/- 17.50 microm. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed their spherical size, perforated smooth surface and a hollow cavity in them. Microballoons exhibited floating properties for more than 10 h. In vitro drug studies were performed in 0.1 M HCI with 0.1% SLS and phosphate buffer (pH 6.2). Different drug release kinetics models were applied for selected batches.

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