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News Article | May 19, 2017
Site: www.businesswire.com

NEWARK, Del.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--CSols, Inc. the premier Laboratory Informatics consultancy, announced the successful completion of the enhancement and extension of GenoLogics Clarity Lab Information Management System (LIMS) for Adaptive Biotechnologies, the leader in high-throughput immunosequencing. To make use of several new features, and to further automate the processing and management of its assays, Adaptive Biotechnologies decided to upgrade its GenoLogics Clarity LIMS. In scoping the requirements for this upgrade, Adaptive Biotechnologies realized that some enhancements, extensions, and interfaces (instruments and systems) were needed, and turned to CSols, a Clarity Certified Application Development (CCAD) partner, for assistance. Adaptive engaged CSols to develop the enhancements, extensions, and interfaces, because of CSols’ expertise with Clarity LIMS, the Clarity LIMS API, and its laboratory and domain knowledge. “CSols was fantastic to work with,” said Sean Nolan, chief technology officer of Adaptive Biotechnologies. “Their consultants were exactly what we needed.” The project was completed successfully, on time and within budget. Consequently, Adaptive Biotechnologies was able to realize many benefits including: The full Project Case Study can be downloaded here. CSols, Inc. is the premier Laboratory Informatics Consultancy, providing objective guidance and tailored solutions through their services: strategic planning and vendor selection, implementation and enhancement, and computer system validation. For more information, visit www.csolsinc.com. Adaptive Biotechnologies is the pioneer and leader in combining high-throughput sequencing and expert bioinformatics to profile T-cell and B-cell receptors. Adaptive is bringing the accuracy and sensitivity of its immunosequencing platform into laboratories around the world to drive groundbreaking research in cancer and other immune-mediated diseases. Adaptive also translates immunosequencing discoveries into clinical diagnostics and therapeutic development to improve patient care. For more information, visit adaptivebiotech.com.


SEATTLE - May 23, 2017 - In an effort to find new strategies to personalize treatment for pediatric patients, Seattle Children's has opened the first clinical trial applying next-generation T-cell receptor (TCR) sequencing and single-cell gene expression analysis to better understand how the immune system drives both inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in pediatric autoimmunity patients and graft-versus host disease (GVHD) in pediatric bone marrow transplant (BMT) patients. The PREDICT (Precision Diagnostics in Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Cellular Therapy and Transplantation) trial is expected to first provide clinicians new information about why IBD arises in children, allowing them to tailor treatment plans to each patient. The trial will later expand to include BMT patients with the goal of identifying the immunologic changes that occur when a patient develops GVHD, the deadliest complication associated with BMT. BMT is used to treat a range of pediatric conditions from leukemia to inherited bone marrow failure syndromes, congenital metabolic disorders and other metabolic diseases. "PREDICT seeks to change the paradigm of treatment by first changing the paradigm of diagnosis," said Dr. Leslie Kean, the the trial's principal investigator who leads a lab focused on T-cell immunology and is the associate director of the Ben Towne Center for Childhood Cancer Research at Seattle Children's Research Institute. "By gaining foundational molecular diagnostic knowledge about a patient's T cells, we hope to ultimately discover better treatment approaches for IBD and GVHD." As part of the trial, Kean and her team will perform TCR sequencing and gene expression analysis on samples collected from 100 IBD and 250 BMT patients. The data resulting from the initial and follow-up analyses will help researchers pinpoint molecular pathways active within a patient's T cells that could serve as therapeutic targets in future studies. The researchers will collaborate with Adaptive Biotechnologies by implementing their immunoSEQ® platform for high-throughput TCR sequencing and conducting TCR repertoire analyses. The single-cell gene expression analysis will be performed using the Chromium™ Single Cell 3' Solution supplied by 10x Genomics, which will enable gene expression patterns to be discovered in each patient's individual T cells. Over the next two years, Kean will work in partnership with transplant, gastroenterology and immunology physicians to first enroll IBD patients who are undergoing their diagnostic evaluation and treatment at Seattle Children's, with plans to open the BMT cohort later this year. A bridge between the bowel and bone marrow GVHD occurs when the T cells of newly transplanted bone marrow begin to attack a patient's tissues, including those of the skin, liver and intestine. The impact to the gastrointestinal tract can be extremely difficult to overcome and is the most deadly complication of BMT. In patients with IBD, a similar pathogenesis is observed where components of the immune system, including T cells, react abnormally over time causing chronic inflammation in the digestive system. Standard treatments aimed at suppressing or modulating the immune response are often ineffective in managing diseases like IBD and GVHD. In both diseases, there is a need for new, targeted therapies able to prevent or treat the diseases without causing the side effects that plague current treatments. "IBD and GVHD have a lot more in common than meets the eye when it comes to the underlying immune response they trigger," said Kean. "PREDICT aims to bridge IBD and GVHD, shedding new light on the immunologic similarities they share and identifying the molecular causes of each patient's disease. This will create a unique opportunity to make significant headway in the treatment of both diseases, with the focus on each child and their unique disease signature." Initial funding for the PREDICT trial was provided through a Seattle Children's Research Institute pilot grant and made possible with support from biopharmaceutical collaborators. For more information on the PREDICT trial at Seattle Children's, please email predict@seattlechildrens.org. Seattle Children's mission is to provide hope, care and cures to help every child live the healthiest and most fulfilling life possible. Together, Seattle Children's Hospital, Research Institute and Foundation deliver superior patient care, identify new discoveries and treatments through pediatric research, and raise funds to create better futures for patients. Ranked as one of the top five children's hospitals in the country by U.S. News & World Report, Seattle Children's serves as the pediatric and adolescent academic medical center for Washington, Alaska, Montana and Idaho - the largest region of any children's hospital in the country. As one of the nation's top five pediatric research centers, Seattle Children's Research Institute is internationally recognized for its work in neurosciences, immunology, cancer, infectious disease, injury prevention and much more. Seattle Children's Hospital and Research Foundation works with the Seattle Children's Guild Association, the largest all-volunteer fundraising network for any hospital in the country, to gather community support and raise funds for uncompensated care and research. For more information, visit seattlechildrens.org or follow us on Twitter, Facebook, Instagram or on our On the Pulse blog.


"PREDICT seeks to change the paradigm of treatment by first changing the paradigm of diagnosis," said Dr. Leslie Kean, the trial's principal investigator who leads a lab focused on T-cell immunology and is the associate director of the Ben Towne Center for Childhood Cancer Research at Seattle Children's Research Institute. "By gaining foundational molecular diagnostic knowledge about a patient's T cells, we hope to ultimately discover better treatment approaches for IBD and GVHD." As part of the trial, Kean and her team will perform TCR sequencing and gene expression analysis on samples collected from 100 IBD and 250 BMT patients. The data resulting from the initial and follow-up analyses will help researchers pinpoint molecular pathways active within a patient's T cells that could serve as therapeutic targets in future studies. The researchers will collaborate with Adaptive Biotechnologies by implementing their immunoSEQ® platform for high-throughput TCR sequencing and conducting TCR repertoire analyses. The single-cell gene expression analysis will be performed using the Chromium™ Single Cell 3′ Solution supplied by 10x Genomics, which will enable gene expression patterns to be discovered in each patient's individual T cells. Over the next two years, Kean will work in partnership with transplant, gastroenterology and immunology physicians to first enroll IBD patients who are undergoing their diagnostic evaluation and treatment at Seattle Children's, with plans to open the BMT cohort later this year. A bridge between the bowel and bone marrow GVHD occurs when the T cells of newly transplanted bone marrow begin to attack a patient's tissues, including those of the skin, liver and intestine. The impact to the gastrointestinal tract can be extremely difficult to overcome and is the most deadly complication of BMT. In patients with IBD, a similar pathogenesis is observed where components of the immune system, including T cells, react abnormally over time causing chronic inflammation in the digestive system. Standard treatments aimed at suppressing or modulating the immune response are often ineffective in managing diseases like IBD and GVHD. In both diseases, there is a need for new, targeted therapies able to prevent or treat the diseases without causing the side effects that plague current treatments. "IBD and GVHD have a lot more in common than meets the eye when it comes to the underlying immune response they trigger," said Kean. "PREDICT aims to bridge IBD and GVHD, shedding new light on the immunologic similarities they share and identifying the molecular causes of each patient's disease. This will create a unique opportunity to make significant headway in the treatment of both diseases, with the focus on each child and their unique disease signature." Initial funding for the PREDICT trial was provided through a Seattle Children's Research Institute pilot grant and made possible with support from biopharmaceutical collaborators. For more information on the PREDICT trial at Seattle Children's, please email predict@seattlechildrens.org. About Seattle Children's Seattle Children's mission is to provide hope, care and cures to help every child live the healthiest and most fulfilling life possible. Together, Seattle Children's Hospital, Research Institute and Foundation deliver superior patient care, identify new discoveries and treatments through pediatric research, and raise funds to create better futures for patients. Ranked as one of the top five children's hospitals in the country by U.S. News & World Report, Seattle Children's serves as the pediatric and adolescent academic medical center for Washington, Alaska, Montana and Idaho – the largest region of any children's hospital in the country. As one of the nation's top five pediatric research centers, Seattle Children's Research Institute is internationally recognized for its work in neurosciences, immunology, cancer, infectious disease, injury prevention and much more. Seattle Children's Hospital and Research Foundation works with the Seattle Children's Guild Association, the largest all-volunteer fundraising network for any hospital in the country, to gather community support and raise funds for uncompensated care and research. For more information, visit seattlechildrens.org or follow us on Twitter, Facebook, Instagram or on our On the Pulse blog. To view the original version on PR Newswire, visit:http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/seattle-childrens-brings-first-of-its-kind-precision-medicine-clinical-trial-to-inflammatory-bowel-disease-bone-marrow-transplant-patients-300462186.html


News Article | November 2, 2016
Site: www.newsmaker.com.au

This report studies sales (consumption) of Liquid Biopsy Products in Global market, especially in United States, China, Europe, Japan, focuses on top players in these regions/countries, with sales, price, revenue and market share for each player in these regions, covering RainDance Technologies  Biocartis  Qiagen  Guardant Health  MDxHealth  Pathway Genomics  NeoGenomics Laboraories  Sysmex Inostics  Cynvenio  Silicon Biosystems  Adaptive Biotechnologies  Biocept  Angle plc  ...  Market Segment by Regions, this report splits Global into several key Regions, with sales (consumption), revenue, market share and growth rate of Liquid Biopsy Products in these regions, from 2011 to 2021 (forecast), like  USA  China  Europe  Japan  Split by product Types, with sales, revenue, price and gross margin, market share and growth rate of each type, can be divided into  CTC  ctDNA  Exosomes  Split by applications, this report focuses on sales, market share and growth rate of Liquid Biopsy Products in each application, can be divided into  Blood Sample  Urine Sample  Other Bio Fluids Global Liquid Biopsy Products Sales Market Report 2016  1 Liquid Biopsy Products Overview  1.1 Product Overview and Scope of Liquid Biopsy Products  1.2 Classification of Liquid Biopsy Products  1.2.1 CTC  1.2.2 ctDNA  1.2.3 Exosomes  1.3 Application of Liquid Biopsy Products  1.3.1 Blood Sample  1.3.2 Urine Sample  1.3.3 Other Bio Fluids  1.4 Liquid Biopsy Products Market by Regions  1.4.1 USA Status and Prospect (2011-2021)  1.4.2 China Status and Prospect (2011-2021)  1.4.3 Europe Status and Prospect (2011-2021)  1.4.4 Japan Status and Prospect (2011-2021)  1.5 Global Market Size (Value and Volume) of Liquid Biopsy Products (2011-2021)  1.5.1 Global Liquid Biopsy Products Sales and Growth Rate (2011-2021)  1.5.2 Global Liquid Biopsy Products Revenue and Growth Rate (2011-2021) 2 Global Liquid Biopsy Products Competition by Manufacturers, Type and Application  2.1 Global Liquid Biopsy Products Market Competition by Manufacturers  2.1.1 Global Liquid Biopsy Products Sales and Market Share of Key Manufacturers (2011-2016)  2.1.2 Global Liquid Biopsy Products Revenue and Share by Manufacturers (2011-2016)  2.2 Global Liquid Biopsy Products (Volume and Value) by Type  2.2.1 Global Liquid Biopsy Products Sales and Market Share by Type (2011-2016)  2.2.2 Global Liquid Biopsy Products Revenue and Market Share by Type (2011-2016)  2.3 Global Liquid Biopsy Products (Volume and Value) by Regions  2.3.1 Global Liquid Biopsy Products Sales and Market Share by Regions (2011-2016)  2.3.2 Global Liquid Biopsy Products Revenue and Market Share by Regions (2011-2016)  2.4 Global Liquid Biopsy Products (Volume) by Application GET EXCLUSIVE DISCOUNT ON THIS REPORT @ https://www.wiseguyreports.com/check-discount/721608-global-liquid-biopsy-products-sales-market-report-2016 Figure Picture of Liquid Biopsy Products  Table Classification of Liquid Biopsy Products  Figure Global Sales Market Share of Liquid Biopsy Products by Type in 2015  Figure CTC Picture  Figure ctDNA Picture  Figure Exosomes Picture  Table Applications of Liquid Biopsy Products  Figure Global Sales Market Share of Liquid Biopsy Products by Application in 2015  Figure Blood Sample Examples  Figure Urine Sample Examples  Figure Other Bio Fluids Examples  Figure USA Liquid Biopsy Products Revenue and Growth Rate (2011-2021)  Figure China Liquid Biopsy Products Revenue and Growth Rate (2011-2021)  Figure Europe Liquid Biopsy Products Revenue and Growth Rate (2011-2021)  Figure Japan Liquid Biopsy Products Revenue and Growth Rate (2011-2021)  Figure Global Liquid Biopsy Products Sales and Growth Rate (2011-2021)  Figure Global Liquid Biopsy Products Revenue and Growth Rate (2011-2021)  Table Global Liquid Biopsy Products Sales of Key Manufacturers (2011-2016)  Table Global Liquid Biopsy Products Sales Share by Manufacturers (2011-2016) FOR ANY QUERY, REACH US @ https://www.wiseguyreports.com/enquiry/721608-global-liquid-biopsy-products-sales-market-report-2016


Global Liquid Biopsy market is expected to grow from $0.63 billion in 2015 to reach $2.93 billion by 2022 with a CAGR of 24.6%. Increasing research & developments and clinical trials for diagnostics, and technological developments are some of the factors driving the market growth. Moreover, growing prevalence of cancer, increasing awareness about liquid biopsy are the factors fostering the market growth. On the other hand, higher costs and complex regulations are restraining the market growth. The circulating tumor cells leads the market globally with the biggest market share and is expected to grow with a high CAGR during the forecast period. By cancer type, lung cancer segment is expected to witness high growth rate during the forecast period. North America emerged as the major revenue generating region in the global market due to innovative technological developments, and increasing incidence of cancer rates in the Canada and U.S. Asia Pacific and Latin America are expected to witness high growth rate during the forecast period. Some of the key players in global liquid biopsy market include Adaptive Biotechnologies, Biocept, Inc., Bio-Rad Laboratories Inc., Guardant Health Inc., Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft, F. Hoffmann-La Roche AG, Epic Sciences, Cynvenio, Illumina Inc., Qiagen, Personal Genome Diagnostics, NeoGenomics Laboratories, Myriad Genetics, Trovagene Inc., RainDance Technologies, MDX Health SA, and Janssen Diagnostics, LLC. Regions Covered:  • North America  o US  o Canada  o Mexico  • Europe  o Germany  o France  o Italy  o UK  o Spain  o Rest of Europe  • Asia Pacific  o Japan  o China  o India  o Australia  o New Zealand  o Rest of Asia Pacific  • Rest of the World  o Middle East  o Brazil  o Argentina  o South Africa  o Egypt What our report offers:  - Market share assessments for the regional and country level segments  - Market share analysis of the top industry players  - Strategic recommendations for the new entrants  - Market forecasts for a minimum of 7 years of all the mentioned segments, sub segments and the regional markets  - Market Trends (Drivers, Constraints, Opportunities, Threats, Challenges, Investment Opportunities, and recommendations)  - Strategic recommendations in key business segments based on the market estimations  - Competitive landscaping mapping the key common trends  - Company profiling with detailed strategies, financials, and recent developments  - Supply chain trends mapping the latest technological About Us Wise Guy Reports is part of the Wise Guy Consultants Pvt. Ltd. and offers premium progressive statistical surveying, market research reports, analysis & forecast data for industries and governments around the globe. Wise Guy Reports understand how essential statistical surveying information is for your organization or association. Therefore, we have associated with the top publishers and research firms all specialized in specific domains, ensuring you will receive the most reliable and up to date research data available.


News Article | November 22, 2016
Site: www.newsmaker.com.au

According to Stratistics MRC, the Global Liquid Biopsy market is expected to grow from $0.63 billion in 2015 to reach $2.93 billion by 2022 with a CAGR of 24.6%. Increasing research & developments and clinical trials for diagnostics, and technological developments are some of the factors driving the market growth. Moreover, growing prevalence of cancer, increasing awareness about liquid biopsy are the factors fostering the market growth. On the other hand, higher costs and complex regulations are restraining the market growth. Access the complete report at: The circulating tumor cells leads the market globally with the biggest market share and is expected to grow with a high CAGR during the forecast period. By cancer type, lung cancer segment is expected to witness high growth rate during the forecast period. North America emerged as the major revenue generating region in the global market due to innovative technological developments, and increasing incidence of cancer rates in the Canada and U.S. Asia Pacific and Latin America are expected to witness high growth rate during the forecast period. Some of the key players in global liquid biopsy market include Adaptive Biotechnologies, Biocept, Inc., Bio-Rad Laboratories Inc., Guardant Health Inc., Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft, F. Hoffmann-La Roche AG, Epic Sciences, Cynvenio, Illumina Inc., Qiagen, Personal Genome Diagnostics, NeoGenomics Laboratories, Myriad Genetics, Trovagene Inc., RainDance Technologies, MDX Health SA, and Janssen Diagnostics, LLC.  Request for a sample at: http://www.strategymrc.com/report/liquid-biopsy-market Sample Types Covered: • Urine • Blood • Others o CSF o Plasma o Saliva Cancer Types Covered: • Gastrointestinal Cancer • Colorectal Cancer • Breast Cancer • Leukemia • Prostate Cancer • Lung Cancer • Liver Cancer • Other Cancers o Ovarian Cancer o Melanoma o Bladder Cancer Circulating Biomarkers Covered: • Extracellular Vesicles (EVs) • Circulating Tumor DNA (ctDNA) • Exosomes • Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs) • Other Biomarkers o Circulating RNA and Protein Products and Services Covered: • Services and Software • Reagents • Instruments End Users Covered: • Hospital and Physician Laboratories • Diagnostic Centers • Academic & Research Centers • Others End User o Small Molecular Laboratories o Public Health Laboratories o Pathology Laboratories Regions Covered: • North America o US o Canada o Mexico • Europe o Germany o France o Italy o UK  o Spain      o Rest of Europe  • Asia Pacific o Japan o China o India o Australia o New Zealand o Rest of Asia Pacific • Rest of the World o Middle East o Brazil o Argentina o South Africa o Egypt What our report offers: - Market share assessments for the regional and country level segments - Market share analysis of the top industry players - Strategic recommendations for the new entrants - Market forecasts for a minimum of 7 years of all the mentioned segments, sub segments and the regional markets - Market Trends (Drivers, Constraints, Opportunities, Threats, Challenges, Investment Opportunities, and recommendations) - Strategic recommendations in key business segments based on the market estimations - Competitive landscaping mapping the key common trends - Company profiling with detailed strategies, financials, and recent developments - Supply chain trends mapping the latest technological advancements


News Article | February 24, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

A new discovery by researchers at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle makes an important step in identifying which specific T cells within the diverse army of a person's immune system are best suited to fight cancer. The findings will be published February 24 in Science Immunology. "We found that the cells in each patient's immune system that will ultimately have a clinical effect are incredibly rare," said Dr. Aude Chapuis, lead author of the paper and a member of the Clinical Research Division at Fred Hutch. "Knowing what we've found, we can now refine the selection of the cells that we will ultimately use for adoptive T cell transfer, so that the cells persist and keep the tumors at bay longer in our patients." Dr. Chapuis is an expert in adoptive T cell transfer, a new class of treatments that use immune T cells to fight cancer. It works by obtaining T cells from the patient's own blood, priming them to seek and destroy cancerous cells, multiplying them in the lab and then returning them to the patient. In some treatment settings, the cancer-targeting T cells are instead obtained from a healthy donor's blood. But since each infusion contains thousands of varieties of T cells each with varying cancer-killing capabilities, it's been unclear which ones offer the most effective anti-cancer punch. Making it more complicated, the cells' anti-cancer properties change as they grow in the lab. The offspring or "clones" they create differ from the originals. It's like a "black box," Dr. Chapuis said, in that scientists have rarely been able to identify the composition of cells that are leading the attack on cancer. A newly developed method of tracking cells lets light into that black box. "High throughput T cell receptor sequencing allows us to distinguish the cells and figure out where they came from, which ones grow in culture and which ones persist after being transferred to the patient," said Dr. Chapuis, who is also an assistant professor in the University of Washington's School of Medicine. "We can finally track in detail what's going on when doing adoptive T cell transfers," she said. The method distinguishes T cells from each other according to the nature of their receptor, which is T cells' weapon against cancer. Adaptive Biotechnologies Corp, a spinout of Fred Hutch, developed high-throughput receptor sequencing for immune cells. The technology gives each T cell receptor a "bar code," allowing the researchers to track all of the diverse members of an individual patient's T cell army. Following the bar codes of the T cell receptors, Fred Hutch scientists are tracking thousands of immune cells after being transferred into patients. They then examined how the cells in the mix related to responses to adoptive T cell therapy treatment in 10 metastatic melanoma patients. The researchers found that in the two patients who went into complete remission after T cell infusion, the specific T cells that ended up dominating the patient's cancer-fighting army after infusion were extremely rare in their bodies originally. The method also allowed the researchers to directly observe in humans that the T cells likely having the most powerful effect tended to be younger, suggesting that they had better capabilities to proliferate and survive -- characteristics essential for long-term tumor control. Dr. Chapuis and her collaborators are now looking at how to select out the powerful but rare immune cells and increase their population before being infused into patients. They're testing the approach in two current clinical trials in lung cancer patients (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02408016) and acute myeloid leukemia patients (NCT02770820). The Cancer Research Institute and Stand Up To Cancer program funded the research. The Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center has licensed technology to Adaptive Biotechnologies Corp and owns a stake in the company. In addition to Dr. Chapuis, the other corresponding author of the paper is Cassian Yee, who did the work while at Fred Hutch and is now at the MD Anderson Cancer Center. Other co-authors are Cindy Desmarais, Ryan Emerson, Thomas Schmitt, Kendall Shibuya, Ivy Lai, Felecia Wagener, Jeffrey Chou, Ilana Roberts, David Coffey, Edus Warren, Harlan Robins and Philip Greenberg. Learn more about Dr. Chapuis' research in a video: https:/ At Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, home to three Nobel laureates, interdisciplinary teams of world-renowned scientists seek new and innovative ways to prevent, diagnose and treat cancer, HIV/AIDS and other life-threatening diseases. Fred Hutch's pioneering work in bone marrow transplantation led to the development of immunotherapy, which harnesses the power of the immune system to treat cancer. An independent, nonprofit research institute based in Seattle, Fred Hutch houses the nation's first cancer prevention research program, as well as the clinical coordinating center of the Women's Health Initiative and the international headquarters of the HIV Vaccine Trials Network. Private contributions are essential for enabling Fred Hutch scientists to explore novel research opportunities that lead to important medical breakthroughs. For more information visit fredhutch.org or follow Fred Hutch on Facebook, Twitter or YouTube.


A new discovery by researchers at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle makes an important step in identifying which specific T cells within the diverse army of a person's immune system are best suited to fight cancer. The findings will be published February 24 in Science Immunology. "We found that the cells in each patient's immune system that will ultimately have a clinical effect are incredibly rare," said Dr. Aude Chapuis, lead author of the paper and a member of the Clinical Research Division at Fred Hutch. "Knowing what we've found, we can now refine the selection of the cells that we will ultimately use for adoptive T cell transfer, so that the cells persist and keep the tumors at bay longer in our patients." Dr. Chapuis is an expert in adoptive T cell transfer, a new class of treatments that use immune T cells to fight cancer. It works by obtaining T cells from the patient's own blood, priming them to seek and destroy cancerous cells, multiplying them in the lab and then returning them to the patient. In some treatment settings, the cancer-targeting T cells are instead obtained from a healthy donor's blood. But since each infusion contains thousands of varieties of T cells each with varying cancer-killing capabilities, it's been unclear which ones offer the most effective anti-cancer punch. Making it more complicated, the cells' anti-cancer properties change as they grow in the lab. The offspring or "clones" they create differ from the originals. It's like a "black box," Dr. Chapuis said, in that scientists have rarely been able to identify the composition of cells that are leading the attack on cancer. A newly developed method of tracking cells lets light into that black box. "High throughput T cell receptor sequencing allows us to distinguish the cells and figure out where they came from, which ones grow in culture and which ones persist after being transferred to the patient," said Dr. Chapuis, who is also an assistant professor in the University of Washington's School of Medicine. "We can finally track in detail what's going on when doing adoptive T cell transfers," she said. The method distinguishes T cells from each other according to the nature of their receptor, which is T cells' weapon against cancer. Adaptive Biotechnologies Corp, a spinout of Fred Hutch, developed high-throughput receptor sequencing for immune cells. The technology gives each T cell receptor a "bar code," allowing the researchers to track all of the diverse members of an individual patient's T cell army. Following the bar codes of the T cell receptors, Fred Hutch scientists are tracking thousands of immune cells after being transferred into patients. They then examined how the cells in the mix related to responses to adoptive T cell therapy treatment in 10 metastatic melanoma patients. The researchers found that in the two patients who went into complete remission after T cell infusion, the specific T cells that ended up dominating the patient's cancer-fighting army after infusion were extremely rare in their bodies originally. The method also allowed the researchers to directly observe in humans that the T cells likely having the most powerful effect tended to be younger, suggesting that they had better capabilities to proliferate and survive -- characteristics essential for long-term tumor control. Dr. Chapuis and her collaborators are now looking at how to select out the powerful but rare immune cells and increase their population before being infused into patients. They're testing the approach in two current clinical trials in lung cancer patients (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02408016) and acute myeloid leukemia patients (NCT02770820). The Cancer Research Institute and Stand Up To Cancer program funded the research. The Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center has licensed technology to Adaptive Biotechnologies Corp and owns a stake in the company. In addition to Dr. Chapuis, the other corresponding author of the paper is Cassian Yee, who did the work while at Fred Hutch and is now at the MD Anderson Cancer Center. Other co-authors are Cindy Desmarais, Ryan Emerson, Thomas Schmitt, Kendall Shibuya, Ivy Lai, Felecia Wagener, Jeffrey Chou, Ilana Roberts, David Coffey, Edus Warren, Harlan Robins and Philip Greenberg.


News Article | February 27, 2017
Site: www.medicalnewstoday.com

The study - published in the journal Science Immunology - is the work of a team led by researchers at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (Fred Hutch) in Seattle, WA. Immunotherapy is an exciting new field in the fight against cancer that uses cells from the patient's own immune system to tackle the disease. However, as in all new medical approaches, it faces immense challenges. From a theoretical standpoint, the idea of using T cells to fight cancer has long been of interest. T cells are members of the adaptive immune system, possessing several features that make them amenable for cancer treatment. For example, T cells react specifically to threats, replicate rapidly, and travel to distant target sites. They also have long memories, suggesting that they can maintain a therapeutic effect for many years after initial treatment. However, while the idea of using T cells looked promising in theory, scientists now face a number of hurdles before turning it into practice. One such challenge - the focus of the new study - is how to identify a readily accessible pool of tumor-specific T cells. The idea of adoptive T cell transfer is to take T cells from the patient's own blood, prime them to target and kill cancer cells, multiply them in the laboratory, and then return them to the patient. In some specific settings, the T cells can come from a healthy donor instead. However, there are thousands of types of T cell - each with a specific cancer-killing effect - and it has not been clear which ones are the most effective against cancer cells. Furthermore, the challenge is heightened by the fact that the cells' anti-cancer effect change as they multiply in the laboratory; the cloned offspring are different to their parents. Lead author Dr. Aude Chapuis, an immunotherapy researcher at Fred Hutch and an expert in adoptive T cell transfer, says: "We found that the cells in each patient's immune system that will ultimately have a clinical effect are incredibly rare." Dr. Chapuis says that trying to identify which cells are leading the attack on the tumor has been like trying to see into a "black box." However, she and her team have discovered a method based on "high throughput T cell receptor sequencing" that sheds light on the problem. Different types of T cell have slightly different weapons for tackling cancer cells, and these weapons can be distinguished by the type of receptor on the T cell. Adaptive Biotechnologies Corp - a spin-off from Fred Hutch - have developed a way of giving each type of T cell receptor a unique "barcode" so that the researchers can read and track all the types of receptor in an individual patient's army of T cells. Dr. Chapuis says that with the new tracking method, they can finally follow in detail what is happening in an individual patient's adoptive T cell transfer. The method allows them to "distinguish the cells and figure out where they came from, which ones grow in culture and which ones persist after being transferred to the patient," she explains. In their study, the researchers used the barcode method to track thousands of immune cells following their transfer into patients. The team assessed how well 10 patients with metastatic melanoma - a disease in which skin cancer had spread to other parts of the body - responded to adoptive T cell therapy using different mixes of T cell types. Two of the patients demonstrated complete remission. On further examination, the team found that in those cases, the T cells that led the fight against the metastatic cancer were types that were extremely rare in the patients' bodies originally. The researchers also used the new tracking method to directly monitor the T cells in the body. They found that the T cells that delivered the strongest anti-cancer punch tended to be younger, suggesting the effect came from the fact that younger cells are more able to replicate and survive - features likely to be important for sustaining long-term effects. The team is now conducting two clinical trials to test how to better extract the rare but powerful T cells and multiply them before returning them to patients. One trial is recruiting lung cancer patients, and the other is recruiting patients with acute myeloid leukemia. In the following video, Dr. Chapuis explains how adoptive T cell transfer fights cancer, the main challenges facing researchers developing this type of immunotherapy, and the progress of the team at Fred Hutch. Learn how immunotherapy may overcome chemotherapy resistance in ovarian cancer.


SEATTLE--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Adaptive Biotechnologies, the leader in combining next-generation sequencing (NGS) and expert bioinformatics to profile T- and B-cell receptors of the adaptive immune system, and its collaborators from pharmaceutical companies and academic centers around the world, will share data further demonstrating the clinical validity and prognostic value of the clonoSEQ Assay for MRD assessment in lymphoid cancers. Data including MRD assessment and T-cell repertoire characteriza

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