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Garg A.,Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad | Maheshwari J.,Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad | Mahapatra D.,Adani Institute of Infrastructure Management | Kumar S.,ECO International
Energy Policy | Year: 2011

End-use electricity efficiency improvements offer an inexpensive way to reduce power shortages. The present study estimates the potential of demand-side management efficiency improvement targeted at (1) short-term efficiency improvement (agricultural pump rectification) that can provide immediate relief, and (2) long-term efficiency improvement (appliance standards such as AC and refrigerator, new agricultural pump purchase and pump replacement) for Gujarat state in India. The methodology includes the calculation of cost of conserved energy for each technology, which works out to be (-1.18)US$ cents/kWh for new agriculture pump sets, 1.03US$ cents/kWh for refrigerators and 5.21US$ cents/kWh for air conditioners. The price of power varies around 1.13US$ cents to 12.1cents/kWh in Gujarat. The annual energy savings from the selected energy-efficient technologies are approximately 8767GWh over a period of 10yr, while the estimated peak power savings are about 1814MW, large enough to eliminate one-fourth of the state's electricity shortages. Also, the estimated CO2 emissions savings are about 7715 Giga grams (Gg) from implementation of the selected energy efficiency measures over a period of 10yr. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Shukla P.R.,Indian Institute of Management | Mahapatra D.,Adani Institute of Infrastructure Management
International Energy Journal | Year: 2011

Energy production and consumption cause environmental and human health damages. Their exclusion by the market leads to inefficient resource allocations. Because of weak market regimes in developing countries, the conventional development pathways overlook these inefficiencies. A sustainable energy system would need to ameliorate this adverse trend while maintaining the equilibrium path that represents true life-cycle cost of energy resources. This paper considers life cycle analysis (LCA) for full accounting of externalities of energy use with specific focus on electricity sector. The LCA is carried out for major energy resources and technologies. The dynamic equilibrium analysis is carried out, spanning period up to year 2050 using an energy system model, ANSWERMARKAL. The results show that the shift to an efficient frontier can be made at a very low cost by introduction of technologies that mitigate local air pollutants like SO 2, NOx and SPM. Internalization of these local externalities too results in co-benefits including reduction in carbon intensity of energy. In addition, the inclusion of life carbon price in life cycle equilibrium leads to further reduction in carbon emissions, besides also delivering the local air quality co-benefits. Our results show that renaissance of domestic coal in India could last so far as national policymakers are concerned with local pollutants. However, mitigation of CO2 emissions to achieve low stabilization target would significantly shift the energy system equilibrium, notwithstanding the introduction of CCS technology. Finally, a generic lesson from our analysis is that the inclusion of all external cost of each energy technology and resource still leads to 'no silver bullet', i.e. a single dominant technology, which dominate future energy system. The energyenvironment efficient frontier thus would evolve through a mix of choices from a portfolio of energy resources and technology options. The diversity of these options including their cost structures; multiple objectives of energyenvironmental policies and the varied inter-linkages of energy and environmental policy dynamics call for a hybrid package of direct regulation and market based economic instruments to sustain energy-environment-economy frontier on the efficient path.


Devkar G.A.,Adani Institute of Infrastructure Management | Mahalingam A.,Indian Institute of Technology Madras | Deep A.,Harvard University | Thillairajan A.,Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Utilities Policy | Year: 2013

Developing countries have been increasingly adopting the Private Sector Participation (PSP) model in the delivery of electricity, telecom and water services. The results from individual studies on the impact of PSP has been mixed. This systematic review synthesizes the evidence on access and quality of services as a result of PSP. Though count of evidence approach shows that PSP is associated with positive impact on outcomes, not all of that can be attributed to PSP. The strength of positive evidence also varies between sectors and outcomes and is strongest for those outcomes where there could be a strong corresponding benefit to the private sector. Narrative synthesis indicated that (i) there are potential trade-offs between different outcomes; (ii) PSP should be accompanied by appropriate regulation, sector reform, and organizational changes to achieve the desired outcomes; (iii) In the absence of specific measures, access to rural and poor areas are adversely affected; and (iv) Unless properly designed, short term focus could dominate long term investment for network expansion and improvement. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Devkar G.A.,Adani Institute of Infrastructure Management | Kalidindi S.N.,Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Built Environment Project and Asset Management | Year: 2013

Purpose: The weak competencies in urban local bodies (ULBs) for implementing public private partnership (PPP) projects are recognized as a major hurdle in uptake of the PPP model in India. Competency-based management provides a systematic solution for addressing the competency gap in ULBs, which comprises four components: competency identification, competency assessment, competency development and competency monitoring. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the development of a PPP competencies assessment (PCA) tool for assessment of competencies in ULBs for implementing urban PPP projects. Design/methodology/approach: The analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was used for modeling of competencies involved in urban PPP projects. The application of the PCA tool was showcased with a case study of PPP projects in the municipal solid waste management (MSW) sector. Findings: The PCA tool is effective in assessment of competencies in ULBs. The outputs obtained from the PCA tool provided detailed information on competency profile of the ULB, competency gap and aggregate measure of PPP competencies index. Originality/value: The study contributes towards the growing body of knowledge on competency development in ULBs for implementing urban PPP projects. The results would also help policy makers to formulate approaches to overcome the competency gap in ULBs. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.


Devkar G.A.,Adani Institute of Infrastructure Management | Kalidindi S.N.,Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Built Environment Project and Asset Management | Year: 2013

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze involvement of external agencies for supplementing competencies in Indian urban public private partnership (PPP) projects. There are two key aspects which need investigation before making a decision to involve external agencies in urban PPP projects: reasons for involvement of external agencies and competencies to be supplemented by these agencies. Design/methodology/approach: A questionnaire survey was conducted among urban PPP experts and ULB representatives for investigating the above aspects. A case study analysis with five urban PPP projects was also performed for investigating involvement of external agencies in the practical realm. Findings: The reasons for involvement of external agencies to supplement competencies rated high in importance are improvement in quality of deliverables, making available unique competencies for implementing urban PPP projects and transparency in implementation of urban PPP projects. The five most important competencies to be supplemented by external agencies are transaction design, evaluation, project marketing, project development process management and PPP process management. Originality/value: The study contributes towards the growing body of knowledge on roles and responsibilities of external agencies in urban PPP projects. The results would also help the policy makers to effectively address competency bottlenecks faced by urban PPP projects. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

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