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Velotti P.,University of Genoa | Elison J.,Adams State University | Garofalo C.,University of Rome La Sapienza
Aggression and Violent Behavior | Year: 2014

We review the largely separate literatures on aggression and shame, concluding that both internalized shame and maladaptive shame-regulation are key factors in a number of psychopathologies and that the latter may in turn lead to violent outcomes. Our review is consistent with, and provides further evidence for, the evolutionary and psychobiological links from shame to anger and aggression described in Elison, Garofalo, and Velotti (2014). Within the aggression literature, our analysis of studies on partner violence, incarcerated violent offenders, and personality disorders (Narcissistic, Borderline, Antisocial) focus on the role of shame as a common antecedent to violence. The review includes an introduction to different facets of shame, and goes on to discuss the trajectories that link shame and aggression, with particular regard to self-esteem and rejection sensitivity. We outline the diverse ways through which aggression could be better explained by acknowledging the triggering emotions and the contextual situations that characterize the aggressive act - especially focusing on partner violence. Finally, we argue that shame and shame-regulation should serve as useful points of intervention for reducing violent behavior and its underlying pathology, highlighting implications for both clinical and research purposes. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Elison J.,Adams State University | Garofalo C.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Velotti P.,University of Genoa
Aggression and Violent Behavior | Year: 2014

Within the shame literature, anger and aggression are widely recognized as responses to shame. Recent findings on the affective neuroscience of social pain suggest multiple models by which social pain (e.g., shame) and anger/aggression may be linked. These models describe the mechanisms underlying the prominent role of shame in interpersonal aggression, a role revealed by many dozens of studies. Anger and aggression in response to shame may be viewed as emotion regulation, coping strategies, and evolutionary adaptations. Unfortunately, these attempts at coping with shame may be adaptive or maladaptive. Indeed, aggression may be an adaptive defensive response to physical pain and many physical threats that, through evolutionary processes, came to be linked to shame once social pain co-opted the affective response to physical pain. In a related article (Velotti, Elison, & Garofalo, 2014), we review the many contexts and populations in which aggression manifests, providing further evidence for the models proposed here. Thus, a more complete understanding of anger and violent behavior requires consideration of social pain, shame, and shame-regulation, for which physical pain serves as a useful model. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Waller M.A.,University of Saint Francis | Gersick M.J.,Adams State University | Townsend R.J.,University of Memphis | Ford C.N.,University of Utah
Strength and Conditioning Journal | Year: 2014

The shot put, hammer throw, and discus throware 3 events in track and field that require explosive strength toexecute the skill. These throwing events require triple extension of the lower extremity and the ability to develop near-maximal muscular force production in a minimal amount of time while maintaining precise execution of the skill. This article will address the preparation of throwers entering the competitive collegiate environment through assessment and strength and conditioning planning. © National Strength and Conditioning Association. © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Steffenson M.M.,Adams State University | Formanowicz D.R.,University of Texas at Arlington | Brown C.A.,Tennessee Technological University
Ethology | Year: 2014

Few studies have attempted to determine how physical injury affects predators. One of the ways that physical injury can be expressed is by autotomy or the voluntary loss of a body part. Here, we examined whether the loss of specific legs affects the foraging success of the wolf spider Rabidosa santrita (predator) on another species, Pardosa valens (prey). We also wanted to identify whether the loss of legs in both the predator and prey would impact the outcome of a predation event. Both predator and prey were collected from a creek bed at Portal, AZ, in 2012. Predators were randomly assigned groups where all prey items were intact or all prey had one randomly chosen leg IV removed. Within these groups, predators were organized into a control, leg I autotomy, or leg IV autotomy treatment. All predators had their pre- and post-foraging running speed determined. Predators were introduced into chambers with five prey items and allowed to forage for 1 h. The leg position autotomized or the comparison of pre- and post-foraging trials had no effect on predator running speed. Additionally, there was no significant effect of either predator or prey leg treatment on the total proportion of prey items captured by the end of the foraging trials. Survival analyses indicated that intact prey items tended to have a higher survival rate when predators were missing a leg IV than when predators were intact. When both the predator and prey were missing legs, no significant difference in prey survival rates was detected. We suggest that for predators that inhabit complex, heterogeneous habitats and are classified as ambush predators, the loss of a limb may affect prey capture success, especially when the prey is intact, but that increased sample size is necessary to determine whether this trend is significant. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH. Source

Atkinson J.,Albany State University | Pipitone R.N.,Adams State University | Sorokowska A.,Wroclaw University | Sorokowski P.,Wroclaw University | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Evolutionary accounts of human traits are often based on proxies for genetic fitness (e.g., number of sex partners, facial attractiveness). Instead of using proxies, actual differences in reproductive success is a more direct measure of Darwinian fitness. Certain voice acoustics such as fundamental frequency and measures of health such as handgrip strength correlate with proxies of fitness, yet there are few studies showing the relation of these traits to reproduction. Here, we explore whether the fundamental frequency of the voice and handgrip strength account for differences in actual reproduction among a population of natural fertility humans. Our results show that both fundamental frequency and handgrip strength predict several measures of reproductive success among a group of indigenous Namibian females, particularly amongst the elderly, with weight also predicting reproductive outcomes among males. These findings demonstrate that both hormonally regulated and phenotypic quality markers can be used as measures of Darwinian fitness among humans living under conditions that resemble the evolutionary environment of Homo sapiens. We also argue that these findings provide support for the Grandmother Hypothesis. © 2012 Atkinson et al. Source

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