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White B.J.,Precision Animal Solutions | White B.J.,Kansas State University | Goehl D.R.,Precision Animal Solutions | Amrine D.E.,Adams Land and Cattle Company | And 3 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2016

Accurate diagnosis of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in beef cattle is a critical facet of therapeutic programs through promotion of prompt treatment of diseased calves in concert with judicious use of antimicrobials. Despite the known inaccuracies, visual observation (VO) of clinical signs is the conventional diagnostic modality for BRD diagnosis. Objective methods of remotely monitoring cattle wellness could improve diagnostic accuracy; however, little information exists describing the accuracy of this method compared to traditional techniques. The objective of this research is to employ Bayesian methodology to elicit diagnostic characteristics of conventional VO compared to remote early disease identification (REDI) to diagnose BRD. Data from previous literature on the accuracy of VO were combined with trial data consisting of direct comparison between VO and REDI for BRD in two populations. No true gold standard diagnostic test exists for BRD; therefore, estimates of diagnostic characteristics of each test were generated using Bayesian latent class analysis. Results indicate a 90.0% probability that the sensitivity of REDI (median 81.3%; 95% probability interval [PI]: 55.5, 95.8) was higher than VO sensitivity (64.5%; PI: 57.9, 70.8). The specificity of REDI (median 92.9%; PI: 88.2, 96.9) was also higher compared to VO (median 69.1%; PI: 66.3, 71.8). The differences in sensitivity and specificity resulted in REDI exhibiting higher positive and negative predictive values in both high (41.3%) and low (2.6%) prevalence situations. This research illustrates the potential of remote cattle monitoring to augment conventional methods of BRD diagnosis resulting in more accurate identification of diseased cattle. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. Source

Hilscher F.H.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln | Streeter M.N.,Merck Animal Health | Vander Pol K.J.,Merck Animal Health | Vander Pol K.J.,Adams Land and Cattle Company | And 8 more authors.
Professional Animal Scientist | Year: 2016

Three experiments evaluated initial implant strategies for finishing cattle. In Exp. 1, heifers (n. =. 1,405; initial BW. =. 282 kg) were given (1) Revalor-IH followed by Revalor-200 (REV-IH/200), (2) Revalor-H followed by Revalor-200 (REV-H/200), or (3) Revalor-200 followed by Revalor-200 (REV-200/200). Intake, ADG, and G:F were not affected (P. >. 0.14) by implant strategies, nor were HCW and LM area (P. >. 0.16). Percent USDA Choice was greater (P. <. 0.01) for Rev-IH/200 compared with Rev-H/200 and Rev-200/200. Experiment 2 used steers (n. =. 1,858; initial BW. =. 250 kg) given (1) Revalor-IS reimplanted with Revalor-200 (RevIS/200), (2) Revalor-XS followed by Revalor-IS (Rev-XS/IS), (3) Revalor-XS followed by Revalor-S (Rev-XS/S), or (4) Revalor-XS followed by Revalor-200 (Rev-XS/200). Implanting strategies did not affect (P. >. 0.32) DMI or G:F. Carcass traits were not different (P. >. 0.18) among treatments, except steers implanted with Rev-XS/200 had greater (P. <. 0.01) LM area. In Exp. 3, steers (n. =. 1,408; initial BW. =. 305 kg) were given (1) Rev-IS/200, (2) Rev-200/200, or (3) Rev-XS/200. Gain and G:F did not differ (P. >. 0.36) among the 3 implant strategies, nor did HCW or marbling score (P. >. 0.15). Steers given Rev-XS/200 had greater (P. <. 0.01) LM area and decreased (P. <. 0.05) 12th-rib fat and YG compared with Rev-200/200 and Rev-IS/200. Using Rev-200/200 and Rev-XS/200 increased (P. =. 0.03) USDA Select compared with Rev-IS/200. Using greater-initial-dose implant strategies may not affect ADG or G:F but appears to increase leanness. © 2016 American Registry of Professional Animal Scientists. Source

Cull C.A.,Kansas State University | Paddock Z.D.,Kansas State University | Nagaraja T.G.,Kansas State University | Bello N.M.,Kansas State University | And 2 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2012

Our primary objective was to determine the efficacy of a siderophore receptor and porin proteins-based vaccine (VAC) and a Lactobacillus acidophilus-based direct-fed microbial (DFM) against fecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in commercial feedlot cattle fed a corn grain-based diet with 25% distiller's grains. Cattle projected to be on a finishing diet during the summer were randomly allocated into 40 study pens within ten blocks based on allocation dates. Blocks were complete; each of the four pens within a block was randomly assigned one treatment: control, VAC, DFM, or VAC+DFM. The DFM was fed (106CFU/animal/day of Lactobacillus) throughout the study periods (84-88 days) and cattle were vaccinated at enrollment and again three weeks later. Fresh fecal samples (30/pen) from pen floors were collected weekly for four consecutive weeks (study days 52-77). Two concurrent culture procedures were used to enable estimates of E. coli O157:H7 shedding prevalence and prevalence of high shedders. From 4800 total samples, 1522 (31.7%) were positive for E. coli O157:H7 and 169 (3.5%) were considered high shedders. Pen-level linear mixed models were used for data analyses. There were no significant interactions among treatments and time of sampling. However, vaccinated pens had lower (P<0.01) overall prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 (model-adjusted mean ±SEM=17.4±3.95%) and lower (P<0.01) prevalence of high shedders (0.95±0.26%) than unvaccinated pens (37.0±6.32% and 4.19±0.81%, respectively). There was no evidence of a DFM effect on either measure of E. coli O157:H7 shedding. Results indicate that a two-dose regimen of the vaccine significantly reduces fecal prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 (vaccine efficacy of 53.0%) and prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 high shedders (vaccine efficacy of 77.3%) in commercial feedlot cattle reared in the summer on a finishing diet with 25% distiller's grains. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Hilscher F.H.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln | Hussey E.M.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln | Nuttelman B.L.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln | Burken D.B.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2015

Two studies evaluated sorting and feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics in randomized block-designed finishing trials. In Exp. 1 (initial BW 342 ± 10 kg, n = 1,000), 5 treatments included an unsorted non-ZH fed negative control (−CON), an unsorted ZH fed positive control (+CON), and 3 treatments in which the heaviest 20% within the pen were sorted and marketed 28 d early and the remaining 80% were fed ZH. The 20% were identified at the beginning (EARLY), 100 d from slaughter (MIDDLE), or 50 d from slaughter (LATE). Because of sorting, the remaining steers in sorted treatments were fed 14 d longer than −CON and +CON. Average days on feed for control treatments were 165 and 173 d for the EARLY, MIDDLE, and LATE treatments. In Exp. 2 (initial BW 376 ± 29 kg, n = 1,400), 4 treatments included −CON; +CON; an early weight sort fed ZH (1-SORT) with the heaviest 20% identified at d 1 and sorted 50 d from harvest and marketed 14 d before −CON and +CON, with the remaining 80% of the pen fed 7 d longer than −CON and +CON; and a 4-way sort 50 d from harvest fed ZH (4-SORT) with steers sorted into HEAVY, MIDHEAVY, MID-LIGHT, and LIGHT groups marketed −14, 0, +7, and +28 d from −CON and +CON, respectively. Average days on feed for control treatments were 154 and 157 d for the 1-SORT and 159 d for 4-SORT. Steers were fed Zilmax at 8.3 mg/kg DM for 20 d followed by a 3 d withdrawal. In Exp. 1, steers fed +CON had 13 kg greater (P < 0.01) HCW than steers fed −CON. Steers sorted EARLY, MIDDLE, and LATE had 28, 25, and 24 kg heavier (P < 0.01) HCW than −CON steers, respectively. Carcass weight SD was greater (P = 0.01) for +CON than −CON but was not different (P = 0.17) between −CON and ZH sorted treatments. Percentage of overweight carcasses (454 kg) was greater (P ≤ 0.05) in sorted treatments than in −CON. In Exp. 2, HCW for +CON was 15 kg heavier (P < 0.01) than that for −CON, and HCW for 4-SORT was greater (P < 0.02) than that for +CON. Carcass weight SD was not different (P > 0.10) between +CON and −CON, whereas carcass weight SD of 4-SORT was reduced (P < 0.01) compared with that of -CON and +CON. Steers fed ZH had a greater percentage of carcasses over 454 kg than steers fed -CON (P < 0.01). Although not statistically different (P = 0.27), the percentage of carcasses over 454 kg was reduced by 28% for 4-SORT compared with +CON. Feeding ZH increases carcass weight, but sorting reduces variation, allowing further increases in carcass weight while minimizing overweight carcasses. © 2015 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved. Source

Cull C.A.,Kansas State University | Renter D.G.,Kansas State University | Bello N.M.,Kansas State University | Ives S.E.,West Texas A&M University | Babcock A.H.,Adams Land and Cattle Company
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2015

The objective of this study was to quantify cattle performance and carcass characteristics associated with administration of a siderophore receptor and porin proteins–based vaccine (VAC) and a direct-fed microbial (DFM), which were originally evaluated for their impact on Escherichia coli O157:H7 fecal shedding in a commercial feedlot population. Cattle (n = 17,148) were randomly allocated into 40 pens grouped by allocation dates into 10 complete blocks; pens within block were randomly allocated to control, VAC, DFM, or VAC + DFM treatment groups in a 2 × 2 factorial design. The DFM (Bovamine) was fed daily at the labeled dose of 106 cfu/animal of Lactobacillus acidophilus for the duration of the intervention period (mean = 86.6 d). The VAC cattle were vaccinated on Days 0 and 21 whereas unvaccinated cattle were not given a placebo or rehandled on Day 21. Data were analyzed using general and generalized linear mixed models that accounted for the study design. Main effects of DFM and VAC are reported as there were no significant treatment interactions for any of the outcomes evaluated. Vaccinated cattle had lower total weight gain (P < 0.01), ADG (P = 0.03), and cumulative DMI during the intervention period (P < 0.01) compared with unvaccinated cattle, whereas the DFM increased total weight gain (P = 0.03) and G:F (P = 0.05) during the intervention period. Daily DMI was decreased (P < 0.01) in vaccinated pens compared with unvaccinated pens during a 5-d period immediately following revaccination. After the intervention period was completed, cattle were sorted following the standard operating procedure for the feedlot and all cattle were fed the DFM from that point until harvest. Each steer was individually identified through harvest. At harvest, vaccinated cattle had more total days on feed (P < 0.01) with a larger HCW (P = 0.01) than nonvaccinated cattle, whereas cattle not fed the DFM during the intervention period had a significantly larger HCW (P < 0.01) than those fed the DFM during the intervention period. We conclude that the use of these DFM and vaccine products have differential and independent effects on cattle performance and carcass characteristics in a commercial feedlot setting. Although the magnitude of these effects may vary among production systems, a more comprehensive understanding of the potential production costs of preharvest food safety pathogen control programs is essential if such programs are to be fully adopted in the industry. © 2015 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved. Source

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