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Bartelik A.,Jagiellonian University | Bartelik A.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Derlacz R.,Adamed Ltd | Derlacz R.,University of Warsaw | And 4 more authors.
Cardiovascular Diabetology | Year: 2014

Background: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) agonists, which have been used as insulin sensitizers in diabetic patients, may improve functions of endothelial cells (ECs). We investigated the effect of PPARγ on angiogenic activities of murine ECs and bone marrow-derived proangiogenic cells (PACs). Methods: PACs were isolated from bone marrow of 10-12 weeks old, wild type, db/db and PPARγ heterozygous animals. Cells were cultured on fibronectin and gelatin coated dishes in EGM-2MV medium. For in vitro stimulations, rosiglitazone (10 μmol/L) or GW9662 (10 μmol/L) were added to 80% confluent cell cultures for 24 hours. Angiogenic potential of PACs and ECs was tested in vitro and in vivo in wound healing assay and hind limb ischemia model. Results: ECs and PACs isolated from diabetic db/db mice displayed a reduced angiogenic potential in ex vivo and in vitro assays, the effect partially rescued by incubation of cells with rosiglitazone (PPARγ activator). Correction of diabetes by administration of rosiglitazone in vivo did not improve angiogenic potential of isolated PACs or ECs. In a hind limb ischemia model we demonstrated that local injection of conditioned media harvested from wild type PACs improved the blood flow restoration in db/db mice, confirming the importance of paracrine action of the bone marrow-derived cells. Conclusions: In summary, activation of PPARγ by rosiglitazone improves angiogenic potential of diabetic ECs and PACs, but decreased expression of PPARγ in diabetes does not impair angiogenesis. © Kotlinowski et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Kolaczkowski M.,Adamed Ltd. | Kolaczkowski M.,Jagiellonian University | Marcinkowska M.,Jagiellonian University | Bucki A.,Jagiellonian University | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2014

In order to target behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), we used molecular modeling-assisted design to obtain novel multifunctional arylsulfonamide derivatives that potently antagonize 5-HT 6/7/2A and D2 receptors, without interacting with M 1 receptors and hERG channels. In vitro studies confirmed their antagonism of 5-HT7/2A and D2 receptors and weak interactions with key antitargets (M1R and hERG) associated with side effects. Marked 5-HT6 receptor affinities were also observed, notably for 6-fluoro-3-(piperidin-4-yl)-1,2-benzoxazole derivatives connected by a 3-4 unit alkyl linker with mono- or bicyclic, lipophilic arylsulfonamide moieties. N-[4-[4-(6-Fluoro-1,2-benzoxazol-3-yl)piperidin-1-yl]butyl] benzothiophene-2-sulfonamide (72) was characterized in vitro on 14 targets and antitargets. It displayed dual blockade of 5-HT6 and D2 receptors and negligible interactions at hERG and M1 receptors. Unlike reference antipsychotics, 72 displayed marked antipsychotic and antidepressant activity in rats after oral administration, in the absence of cognitive or motor impairment. This profile is particularly attractive when targeting a fragile, elderly BPSD patient population. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

Konieczny M.T.,Medical University of Gdańsk | Bulakowska A.,Medical University of Gdańsk | Polak J.,Medical University of Gdańsk | Pirska D.,Medical University of Gdańsk | And 9 more authors.
Chemical Biology and Drug Design | Year: 2014

Derivatives of (E)-1-(5-alkoxybenzo[d][1,3]oxathiol-6-yl)-3-phenylprop-2- en-1-one demonstrated exceptionally high in vitro cytotoxic activity, with IC50 values of the most active derivatives in the nanomolar range. To identify structural fragments necessary for the activity, several analogs deprived of selected fragments were prepared, and their cytotoxic activity was tested. It was found that the activity depends on combined effects of (i) the heterocyclic ring, (ii) the alkoxy group at position 5 of the benzoxathiole ring, and (iii) the substituents in the phenyl ring B. Replacement of the sulfur atom by oxygen does not influence the activity. None of the listed structural fragments alone assured high cytotoxic activity. Structural factors responsible for exceptionally high cytotoxic activity of the title chalcones were identified by synthesis and testing of analogs deprived of particular structural fragments. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Kozakowska M.,Jagiellonian University | Ciesla M.,Jagiellonian University | Stefanska A.,Jagiellonian University | Skrzypek K.,Jagiellonian University | And 21 more authors.
Antioxidants and Redox Signaling | Year: 2012

Aims: Heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1) is a cytoprotective enzyme degrading heme to biliverdin, iron ions, and carbon monoxide, whose expression is induced in response to oxidative stress. Its overexpression has been suggested as a strategy improving survival of transplanted muscle precursors. Results: Here we demonstrated that HMOX1 inhibits differentiation of myoblasts and modulates miRNA processing: downregulates Lin28 and DGCR8, lowers the total pool of cellular miRNAs, and specifically blocks induction of myomirs. Genetic or pharmacological activation of HMOX1 in C2C12 cells reduces the abundance of miR-1, miR-133a, miR-133b, and miR-206, which is accompanied by augmented production of SDF-1 and miR-146a, decreased expression of MyoD, myogenin, and myosin, and disturbed formation of myotubes. Similar relationships between HMOX1 and myomirs were demonstrated in murine primary satellite cells isolated from skeletal muscles of HMOX1, HMOX1, and HMOX1 -/- mice or in human rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines. Inhibition of myogenic development is independent of antioxidative properties of HMOX1. Instead it is mediated by CO-dependent inhibition of c/EBPδ binding to myoD promoter, can be imitated by SDF-1, and partially reversed by enforced expression of miR-133b and miR-206. Control C2C12 myoblasts injected to gastrocnemius muscles of NOD-SCID mice contribute to formation of muscle fibers. In contrast, HMOX1 overexpressing C2C12 myoblasts form fast growing, hyperplastic tumors, infiltrating the surrounding tissues, and disseminating to the lungs. Innovation: We evidenced for the first time that HMOX1 inhibits differentiation of myoblasts, affects the miRNA processing enzymes, and modulates the miRNA transcriptome. Conclusion: HMOX1 improves the survival of myoblasts, but concurrently through regulation of myomirs, may act similarly to oncogenes, increasing the risk of hyperplastic growth of myogenic precursors. © 2012, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Jastrzebska-Wiesek M.,Jagiellonian University | Siwek A.,Jagiellonian University | Partyka A.,Jagiellonian University | Kubacka M.,Jagiellonian University | And 5 more authors.
Neuropharmacology | Year: 2014

The 5-HT6 is one of the most recent additions to the 5-HT receptor family. Its pharmacological profile and anatomical distribution is suggestive of a putative role in mood disorders. Most of preclinical evidence suggests an anxiolytic-like action of 5-HT6 receptor antagonists. Evaluation the anxiolytic-like effects of EMD 386088, a partial 5-HT6receptor agonist, and its putative mechanism of action in rats. EMD 386088, administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg evoked specific anxiolytic-like activity in the automated version of the conflict drinking Vogel and the elevated plus-maze tests visible by increasing all parameters indicating a potential anti-anxiety effect. Its activity was blocked by the selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonist SB 271046, but not by the selective GABAA/benzodiazepine receptor antagonist flumazenil. EMD 386088 did not intensify an anxiolytic-like effect produced by diazepam in the elevated plus-maze test. These findings suggest that EMD 386088, a 5-HT6 receptor agonist, produces anxiolytic-like activity after systemic administration which may result from direct stimulation of 5-HT6 receptors. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Kolaczkowski M.,Adamed Ltd. | Kolaczkowski M.,Jagiellonian University | Mierzejewski P.,Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology | Bienkowski P.,Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology | And 2 more authors.
Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology | Year: 2014

Many dementia patients exhibit behavioral and psychological symptoms (BPSD), including psychosis and depression. Although antipsychotics are frequently prescribed off-label, they can have marked side effects. In addition, comparative preclinical studies of their effects are surprisingly scarce, and strategies for discovery of novel pharmacotherapeutics are lacking. We therefore compared eight antipsychotics in rat behavioral tests of psychosis, antidepressant-like activity, and cognitive impairment as a basis for preclinical evaluation of new drug candidates. The methods used in this study include inhibition of MK-801-induced hyperactivity, forced swim test (FST), passive avoidance (PA), spontaneous locomotor activity, and catalepsy. The drugs exhibited antipsychotic-like activity in the MK-801 test but with diverse profiles in the other models. Risperidone impaired PA performance, but with some dose separation versus its actions in the MK-801 test. In contrast, clozapine, olanzapine, lurasidone, and asenapine showed little or no dose separation in these tests. Aripiprazole did not impair PA performance but was poorly active in the MK-801 test. Diverse effects were also observed in the FST: chlorpromazine was inactive and most other drugs reduced immobility over narrow dose ranges, whereas clozapine reduced immobility over a wider dose range, overlapping with antipsychotic activity. Although the propensity of second-generation antipsychotics to produce catalepsy was lower, they all elicited pronounced sedation. Consistent with clinical data, most currently available second-generation antipsychotics induced cognitive and motor side effects with little separation from therapeutic-like doses. This study provides a uniform in vivo comparative basis on which to evaluate future early-stage drug candidates intended for potential pharmacotherapy of BPSD. © 2014 The Author(s).

Kolaczkowski M.,Adamed Ltd. | Kolaczkowski M.,Jagiellonian University | Marcinkowska M.,Jagiellonian University | Bucki A.,Jagiellonian University | And 10 more authors.
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2015

We describe a novel class of designed multiple ligands (DMLs) combining serotonin 5-HT6 receptor (5-HT6R) antagonism with dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) partial agonism. Prototype hybrid molecules were designed using docking to receptor homology models. Diverse pharmacophore moieties yielded 3 series of hybrids with varying in vitro properties at 5-HT6R and D2R, and at M1 receptor and hERG channel antitargets. 4-(piperazin-1-yl)-1H-indole derivatives showed highest antagonist potency at 5-HT6R, with 7-butoxy-3,4-dihydroquinolin-2(1H)-one and 2-propoxybenzamide derivatives having promising D2R partial agonism. 2-(3-(4-(1-(phenylsulfonyl)-1H-indol-4-yl)piperazin-1-yl)propoxy)benzamide (47) exhibited nanomolar affinity at both 5-HT6R and D2R and was evaluated in rat models. It displayed potent antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like activity in the Porsolt and Vogel tests, respectively, more pronounced than that of a reference selective 5-HT6R antagonist or D2R partial agonist. In addition, 47 also showed antidepressant-like activity (Porsolt's test) and anxiolytic-like activity (open field test) in aged (>18-month old) rats. In operant conditioning tests, 47 enhanced responding for sweet reward in the saccharin self-administration test, consistent with anti-anhedonic properties. Further, 47 facilitated extinction of non-reinforced responding for sweet reward, suggesting potential procognitive activity. Taken together, these studies suggest that DMLs combining 5-HT6R antagonism and D2R partial agonism may successfully target affective disorders in patients from different age groups without a risk of cognitive deficits. © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

Kolaczkowski M.,Jagiellonian University | Kolaczkowski M.,Adamed Ltd. | Bucki A.,Jagiellonian University | Feder M.,Adamed Ltd. | Pawlowski M.,Jagiellonian University
Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling | Year: 2013

Recent breakthroughs in crystallographic studies of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), together with continuous progress in molecular modeling methods, have opened new perspectives for structure-based drug discovery. A crucial enhancement in this area was development of induced fit docking procedures that allow optimization of binding pocket conformation guided by the features of its active ligands. In the course of our research program aimed at discovery of novel antipsychotic agents, our attention focused on dopaminergic D2 and D1 receptors (D2R and D1R). Thus, we decided to investigate whether the availability of a novel structure of the closely related D3 receptor and application of induced fit docking procedures for binding pocket refinement would permit the building of models of D2R and D1R that facilitate a successful virtual screening (VS). Here, we provide an in-depth description of the modeling procedure and the discussion of the results of a VS benchmark we performed to compare efficiency of the ligand-optimized receptors in comparison with the regular homology models. We observed that application of the ligand-optimized models significantly improved the VS performance both in terms of BEDROC (0.325 vs 0.182 for D1R and 0.383 vs 0.301 for D2R) as well as EF1% (20 vs 11 for D1R and 18 vs 10 for D2R). In contrast, no improvement was observed for the performance of a D2R model built on the D3R template, when compared with that derived from the structure of the previously published and more evolutionary distant β2 adrenergic receptor. The comparison of results for receptors built according to various protocols and templates revealed that the most significant factor for the receptor performance was a proper selection of "tool ligand" used in induced fit docking procedure. Taken together, our results suggest that the described homology modeling procedure could be a viable tool for structure-based GPCR ligand design, even for the targets for which only a relatively distant structural template is available. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Jastrzebska-Wiesek M.,Jagiellonian University | Siwek A.,Jagiellonian University | Partyka A.,Jagiellonian University | Szewczyk B.,Polish Academy of Sciences | And 5 more authors.
Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology | Year: 2015

The study was designed to examine the potency of EMD 386088, a 5-HT6 receptor partial agonist, to exert antidepressant-like properties in animal models following acute and chronic intraperitoneal administration to rats. The modified rat forced swim test (FST) was utilized to examine a potential antidepressant effect of EMD 386088 after acute treatment (30 min before the test) and three times in a 24-h administration scheme (24 h, 5 h, and 30 min prior to the FST). The olfactory bulbectomy (OB) model was used to assess its antidepressant-like properties after chronic treatment (the drug was administered once daily for 14 days). EMD 386088 showed an antidepressant-like effect in all conducted tests. Its activity in FST after its acute administration (5 mg/kg) was blocked by the selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonist SB 271046. The obtained results seem to be specific, as there was no observed locomotor stimulation by the drug given at a lower/antidepressant dose. In the three times in the 24-h treatment scheme, EMD 386088 (2.5 mg/kg) exerted antidepressant properties in FST as well as increased locomotor activity in the open field test. Chronic administration of EMD 386088 (2.5 mg/kg) significantly improved the learning deficit in OB rats without affecting performance in Sham-operated (SH) animals in the passive avoidance test, and reduced OB-related rats' locomotor hyperactivity, but did not change the number of rearing + peeping episodes. The obtained findings suggest that EMD 386088 produces antidepressant-like activity after systemic acute and chronic administration which may result from direct stimulation of 5-HT6 receptors. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

PubMed | Adamed Ltd and Jagiellonian University
Type: | Journal: Stem cell research & therapy | Year: 2015

Diabetes is associated with reduced expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a heme-degrading enzyme with cytoprotective and proangiogenic properties. In myoblasts and muscle satellite cells HO-1 improves survival, proliferation and production of proangiogenic growth factors. Induction of HO-1 in injured tissues facilitates neovascularization, the process impaired in diabetes. We aimed to examine whether conditioned media from the HO-1 overexpressing myoblast cell line can improve a blood-flow recovery in ischemic muscles of diabetic mice.Analysis of myogenic markers was performed at the mRNA level in primary muscle satellite cells, isolated by a pre-plate technique from diabetic db/db and normoglycemic wild-type mice, and then cultured under growth or differentiation conditions. Hind limb ischemia was performed by femoral artery ligation in db/db mice and blood recovery was monitored by laser Doppler measurements. Mice were treated with a single intramuscular injection of conditioned media harvested from wild-type C2C12 myoblast cell line, C2C12 cells stably transduced with HO-1 cDNA, or with unconditioned media.Expression of HO-1 was lower in muscle satellite cells isolated from muscles of diabetic db/db mice when compared to their wild-type counterparts, what was accompanied by increased levels of Myf5 or CXCR4, and decreased Mef2 or Pax7. Such cells also displayed diminished differentiation potential when cultured in vitro, as shown by less effective formation of myotubes and reduced expression of myogenic markers (myogenic differentiation antigen - myoD, myogenin and myosin). Blood flow recovery after induction of severe hind limb ischemia was delayed in db/db mice compared to that in normoglycemic individuals. To improve muscle regeneration after ischemia, conditioned media collected from differentiating C2C12 cells (control and HO-1 overexpressing) were injected into hind limbs of diabetic mice. Analysis of blood flow revealed that media from HO-1 overexpressing cells accelerated blood-flow recovery, while immunohistochemical staining assessment of vessel density in injected muscle confirmed increased angiogenesis. The effect might be mediated by stromal-cell derived factor-1 proangiogenic factor, as its secretion is elevated in HO-1 overexpressing cells.In conclusion, paracrine stimulation of angiogenesis in ischemic skeletal muscle using conditioned media may be a safe approach exploiting protective and proangiogenic properties of HO-1 in diabetes.

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