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Mierzejewski P.,Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology | Kolaczkowski M.,Jagiellonian University | Kolaczkowski M.,Adamed Ltd | Nowak N.,Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology | And 6 more authors.
Neuroscience Letters | Year: 2013

Zolpidem is a non-benzodiazepine hypnotic drug acting preferentially at α1-containing GABAA receptors expressed in various parts of the brain, including the basal ganglia. The aim of the present study was to provide preliminary characteristics of zolpidem-induced catalepsy in Wistar rats. Zolpidem (2.5-10.0mg/kg), but not diazepam and midazolam, produced dose-dependent cataleptic responses in the bar test, which were similar to those produced by a reference antipsychotic drug, haloperidol. Zolpidem-induced catalepsy was abolished by a benzodiazepine site antagonist, flumazenil (5.0mg/kg), D2/3 receptor agonist, quinpirole (1.0mg/kg), and a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801 (0.1mg/kg), but not by a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, naltrexone (3.0mg/kg). The present results indicate that systemic injections of zolpidem may produce short-lasting, neuroleptic-like catalepsy in the rat. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Jastrzebska-Wiesek M.,Jagiellonian University | Siwek A.,Jagiellonian University | Partyka A.,Jagiellonian University | Antkiewicz-Michaluk L.,Polish Academy of Sciences | And 5 more authors.
Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology | Year: 2016

It was shown that 5-HT6 receptor agonists can exert pharmacological activity due to various modifications in monoamines’ level and metabolism activity in rats’ brain structures. This finding was correlated with antidepressant- or anxiolytic-like properties of these compounds. The study was designed to establish a possible mechanism of the antidepressant-like activity of the partial 5-HT6 receptor agonist EMD386088 (5-chloro-2-methyl-3-(1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-4-pyridinyl)-1H-indole hydrochloride) in rats. The concentrations of monoamines (dopamine (DA), noradrenaline (NA), and serotonin (5-HT)) and the rate of their metabolism were measured ex vivo in the brain structures (hippocampus, nucleus accumbens, striatum) using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The rats were killed after the forced swim test (FST); the collected tissue samples were used to ex vivo experiments. The potency of EMD386088 to blockade dopamine transporter (DAT) was tested in a functional in vitro study. FST was used to assess the involvement of D1- and D2-like receptor subfamilies in antidepressant-like properties of EMD386088. Neurochemical data from ex vivo experiments showed that antiimmobility activity of EMD386088 may be connected with the activation of dopaminergic system, while neither noradrenergic nor serotonergic ones are involved in its effect. EMD386088 also possesses a significant affinity for DAT which may be a mechanism in the abovementioned effect. Behavioral data seem to confirm the importance of dopaminergic system activation in antidepressant-like activity of EMD386088, since this effect, observed in the FST, was abolished by the preferential D1- and D2-like receptor subfamily antagonists SCH23390 and sulpiride, respectively. Dopaminergic system is involved in antidepressant-like activity of EMD386088. © 2016, The Author(s).


Kolaczkowski M.,Adamed Ltd. | Kolaczkowski M.,Jagiellonian University | Mierzejewski P.,Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology | Bienkowski P.,Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology | And 2 more authors.
British Journal of Pharmacology | Year: 2014

Background and Purpose Many dementia patients exhibit behavioural and psychological symptoms (BPSD) that include psychosis, aggressivity, depression and anxiety. Antipsychotic drugs are frequently prescribed but fail to significantly attenuate mood deficits, may interfere with cognitive function and are associated with motor and cardiac side effects, which are problematic in elderly patients. A need therefore exists for drugs that are better suited for the treatment of BPSD. Experimental Approach We used in vitro cellular and in vivo behavioural tests to characterize ADN-1184, a novel arylsulfonamide ligand with potential utility for treatment of BPSD. Key Results ADN-1184 exhibits substantial 5-HT6/5-HT7/5-HT2A/D2 receptor affinity and antagonist properties in vitro. In tests of antipsychotic-like activity, it reversed MK-801-induced hyperactivity and stereotypies and inhibited conditioned avoidance response (MED = 3 mg·kg-1 i.p.). Remarkably, ADN-1184 also reduced immobility time in the forced swim test at low doses (0.3 and 1 mg·kg-1 i.p.; higher doses were not significantly active). Notably, up to 30 mg·kg-1 ADN-1184 did not impair memory performance in the passive avoidance test or elicit significant catalepsy and only modestly inhibited spontaneous locomotor activity (MED = 30 mg·kg-1 i.p.). Conclusions and Implications ADN-1184 combines antipsychotic-like with antidepressant-like properties without interfering with memory function or locomotion. This profile is better than that of commonly used atypical antipsychotics tested under the same conditions and suggests that it is feasible to identify drugs that improve BPSD, without exacerbating cognitive deficit or movement impairment, which are of particular concern in patients with dementia. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.


Jastrzebska-Wiesek M.,Jagiellonian University | Siwek A.,Jagiellonian University | Kazek G.,Jagiellonian University | Nawieoeniak B.,Jagiellonian University | And 5 more authors.
Pharmacological Reports | Year: 2013

Background: Over recent years, The 5-hydroxytryptamine6 (5-HT6) receptor has emerged as a promising molecular target which interacts with several central nervous system acting drugs. In animal models, both agonists and antagonists of this receptor exhibit equivalent potency and efficacy as potential antidepressants, anxiolytics and anti-obesity or anti-dementia drugs. EMD386088 (5- chloro-2-methyl-3-(1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-4-pyridinyl)-1H-indole hydrochloride) has been described as a high affinity 5-HT6 receptor ligand with a full agonist activity and with moderate affinity for 5-HT3 sites. Methods:We have extended These data by broadening its profile for oTher, not yet tested, monoaminergic, GABAA, opioid ? receptors and serotonin transporter (SERT) and we have conducted functional in vitro assays; i.e., measurement of cAMP by homogeneous TR-FRET immunoassay and HTRF method made by CEREP as well as aequorin-based calcium flux assay. Results: In two in vitro models based on cAMPformation, maximal efficacy values for EMD386088 were 65 and 31%, for in house and CEREP experiments, respectively. In a model based on calcium response, The studied compound showed 46% of maximal serotonin (5-HT) signal. EMD386088 antagonizes 5-HT response in increasing concentrations from 10-9 to 10-6 M. Conclusions: The present in vitro findings confirm that EMD386088 is a selective 5-HT6 receptor ligand with moderate affinity for 5-HT3 sites only and it behaves as a potent partial agonist of 5-HT6 receptor with varying levels of agonist intrinsic activity, depending on a method employed. In view of These results, caution is recommended in The interpretation of pharmacological in vivo studies with EMD386088.


Mierzejewski P.,Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology | Kolaczkowski M.,Jagiellonian University | Kolaczkowski M.,Adamed Ltd. | Marcinkowska M.,Jagiellonian University | And 4 more authors.
European Journal of Pharmacology | Year: 2016

Aside from their use in the treatment of anxiety disorders and insomnia, benzodiazepines and other GABAA receptor positive modulators are widely used as add-on treatments in schizophrenic and non-schizophrenic psychoses. However, there is relatively little direct clinical or pre-clinical evidence for antipsychotic effects of GABAergic medications. Previous studies have indicated that zolpidem, a GABAergic drug acting preferentially at α1-containing GABAA receptors, may produce catalepsy through interactions with dopaminergic neurotransmission. The aim of the present study was to investigate effects of zolpidem in experimental models of antipsychotic activity and extrapyramidal side effects in Wistar rats. Effects of zolpidem were compared with that of a classic benzodiazepine drug, diazepam and a second-generation antipsychotic medication, risperidone. High doses of risperidone (10.0 mg/kg, i.p.) and zolpidem (10.0 mg/kg, i.p.), but not diazepam, induced relatively short-lasting cataleptic responses in the bar test. Zolpidem and risperidone, but not diazepam, produced some antipsychotic-like effects at doses, which produced no catalepsy and did not inhibit spontaneous locomotor activity and apomorphine-induced stereotypies. The present results tend to indicate that zolpidem exerts some neuroleptic-like effects at doses, which do not produce motor side effects. Our findings may provide further rationale for the development of new subtype-selective GABAA receptor modulators for the treatment of psychotic symptoms. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Kotanska M.,Jagiellonian University | Sniecikowska J.,Jagiellonian University | Jastrzebska-Wiesek M.,Jagiellonian University | Kolaczkowski M.,Jagiellonian University | And 2 more authors.
Frontiers in Neuroscience | Year: 2017

Since 5-HT6 receptors play role in controlling feeding and satiety and dopamine is essential for normal feeding behavior, we evaluated the ability of EMD 386088-5-HT6 receptor partial agonist and dopamine transporter inhibitor-to reduce body weight in obese rats, as well as its anorectic properties (calorie intake reduction) in rat model of excessive eating and the influence on metabolism (plasma glucose and glycerol levels). We also determined the effect of the studied compound on pica behavior in rats and its influence on blood pressure after single administration. EMD 386088 reduced body weight in obese rats fed high-fat diet and decreased calorie intake in both models applied (rat model of obesity and of excessive eating). In both models EMD 386088 regulated plasma glucose and increased plasma glycerol levels. The latter proves that the compound reduced body fat. We think that it might have increased lipolysis, but this requires further studies. The reduction in glucose levels is the first symptom of metabolic disorders compensation. EMD 386088 did not cause pica behavior in rats but increased blood pressure after single administration. We think that partial 5-HT6 agonists might have potential in the treatment of obesity. Thus, EMD 386088 requires extended studies. © 2017 Kotanska, Sniecikowska, Jastrzebska-Wiesek, Kołaczkowski and Pytka.


Jastrzebska-Wiesek M.,Jagiellonian University | Siwek A.,Jagiellonian University | Partyka A.,Jagiellonian University | Kubacka M.,Jagiellonian University | And 5 more authors.
Neuropharmacology | Year: 2014

The 5-HT6 is one of the most recent additions to the 5-HT receptor family. Its pharmacological profile and anatomical distribution is suggestive of a putative role in mood disorders. Most of preclinical evidence suggests an anxiolytic-like action of 5-HT6 receptor antagonists. Evaluation the anxiolytic-like effects of EMD 386088, a partial 5-HT6receptor agonist, and its putative mechanism of action in rats. EMD 386088, administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg evoked specific anxiolytic-like activity in the automated version of the conflict drinking Vogel and the elevated plus-maze tests visible by increasing all parameters indicating a potential anti-anxiety effect. Its activity was blocked by the selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonist SB 271046, but not by the selective GABAA/benzodiazepine receptor antagonist flumazenil. EMD 386088 did not intensify an anxiolytic-like effect produced by diazepam in the elevated plus-maze test. These findings suggest that EMD 386088, a 5-HT6 receptor agonist, produces anxiolytic-like activity after systemic administration which may result from direct stimulation of 5-HT6 receptors. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Kolaczkowski M.,Adamed Ltd. | Kolaczkowski M.,Jagiellonian University | Mierzejewski P.,Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology | Bienkowski P.,Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology | And 2 more authors.
Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology | Year: 2014

Many dementia patients exhibit behavioral and psychological symptoms (BPSD), including psychosis and depression. Although antipsychotics are frequently prescribed off-label, they can have marked side effects. In addition, comparative preclinical studies of their effects are surprisingly scarce, and strategies for discovery of novel pharmacotherapeutics are lacking. We therefore compared eight antipsychotics in rat behavioral tests of psychosis, antidepressant-like activity, and cognitive impairment as a basis for preclinical evaluation of new drug candidates. The methods used in this study include inhibition of MK-801-induced hyperactivity, forced swim test (FST), passive avoidance (PA), spontaneous locomotor activity, and catalepsy. The drugs exhibited antipsychotic-like activity in the MK-801 test but with diverse profiles in the other models. Risperidone impaired PA performance, but with some dose separation versus its actions in the MK-801 test. In contrast, clozapine, olanzapine, lurasidone, and asenapine showed little or no dose separation in these tests. Aripiprazole did not impair PA performance but was poorly active in the MK-801 test. Diverse effects were also observed in the FST: chlorpromazine was inactive and most other drugs reduced immobility over narrow dose ranges, whereas clozapine reduced immobility over a wider dose range, overlapping with antipsychotic activity. Although the propensity of second-generation antipsychotics to produce catalepsy was lower, they all elicited pronounced sedation. Consistent with clinical data, most currently available second-generation antipsychotics induced cognitive and motor side effects with little separation from therapeutic-like doses. This study provides a uniform in vivo comparative basis on which to evaluate future early-stage drug candidates intended for potential pharmacotherapy of BPSD. © 2014 The Author(s).


Kolaczkowski M.,Jagiellonian University | Kolaczkowski M.,Adamed Ltd. | Bucki A.,Jagiellonian University | Feder M.,Adamed Ltd. | Pawlowski M.,Jagiellonian University
Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling | Year: 2013

Recent breakthroughs in crystallographic studies of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), together with continuous progress in molecular modeling methods, have opened new perspectives for structure-based drug discovery. A crucial enhancement in this area was development of induced fit docking procedures that allow optimization of binding pocket conformation guided by the features of its active ligands. In the course of our research program aimed at discovery of novel antipsychotic agents, our attention focused on dopaminergic D2 and D1 receptors (D2R and D1R). Thus, we decided to investigate whether the availability of a novel structure of the closely related D3 receptor and application of induced fit docking procedures for binding pocket refinement would permit the building of models of D2R and D1R that facilitate a successful virtual screening (VS). Here, we provide an in-depth description of the modeling procedure and the discussion of the results of a VS benchmark we performed to compare efficiency of the ligand-optimized receptors in comparison with the regular homology models. We observed that application of the ligand-optimized models significantly improved the VS performance both in terms of BEDROC (0.325 vs 0.182 for D1R and 0.383 vs 0.301 for D2R) as well as EF1% (20 vs 11 for D1R and 18 vs 10 for D2R). In contrast, no improvement was observed for the performance of a D2R model built on the D3R template, when compared with that derived from the structure of the previously published and more evolutionary distant β2 adrenergic receptor. The comparison of results for receptors built according to various protocols and templates revealed that the most significant factor for the receptor performance was a proper selection of "tool ligand" used in induced fit docking procedure. Taken together, our results suggest that the described homology modeling procedure could be a viable tool for structure-based GPCR ligand design, even for the targets for which only a relatively distant structural template is available. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Jastrzebska-Wiesek M.,Jagiellonian University | Siwek A.,Jagiellonian University | Partyka A.,Jagiellonian University | Szewczyk B.,Polish Academy of Sciences | And 5 more authors.
Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology | Year: 2015

The study was designed to examine the potency of EMD 386088, a 5-HT6 receptor partial agonist, to exert antidepressant-like properties in animal models following acute and chronic intraperitoneal administration to rats. The modified rat forced swim test (FST) was utilized to examine a potential antidepressant effect of EMD 386088 after acute treatment (30 min before the test) and three times in a 24-h administration scheme (24 h, 5 h, and 30 min prior to the FST). The olfactory bulbectomy (OB) model was used to assess its antidepressant-like properties after chronic treatment (the drug was administered once daily for 14 days). EMD 386088 showed an antidepressant-like effect in all conducted tests. Its activity in FST after its acute administration (5 mg/kg) was blocked by the selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonist SB 271046. The obtained results seem to be specific, as there was no observed locomotor stimulation by the drug given at a lower/antidepressant dose. In the three times in the 24-h treatment scheme, EMD 386088 (2.5 mg/kg) exerted antidepressant properties in FST as well as increased locomotor activity in the open field test. Chronic administration of EMD 386088 (2.5 mg/kg) significantly improved the learning deficit in OB rats without affecting performance in Sham-operated (SH) animals in the passive avoidance test, and reduced OB-related rats' locomotor hyperactivity, but did not change the number of rearing + peeping episodes. The obtained findings suggest that EMD 386088 produces antidepressant-like activity after systemic acute and chronic administration which may result from direct stimulation of 5-HT6 receptors. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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